On the other hand, the near-midgap state in this work is highly sensitive

to the edge geometry. Therefore, achieving high material quality (with defect density less than parts per billion) is imperative for a proper operation of the proposed transistor. Moreover, the bandwidth of the near-midgap state is gate-voltage dependent; the V d corresponding to peak and valley Vistusertib cost currents increases with increasing gate bias V g due to a larger conduction window. Such peculiar drain voltage-dependent transport features are not exclusive for this device. In a three-terminal device, the electrostatics due to the drain bias introduces various non-trivial effects, e.g., pinch-off in FETs, etc. To understand these device characteristics further, we report the drain bias dependence of the transmission window in Figure 2c for a gate voltage of 0.2 V. Without any drain bias, a wide transmission window is observed, which monotonically decreases with increasing bias (see Additional file 1 for further discussion). It is more interesting to look at the product of the transmission and the Fermi function difference of source/drain contacts T(E)[f

s − f d]. With the increasing bias, since the Fermi function difference monotonically increases, the overall trend as shown in Figure 2d is observed. Using 7-Cl-O-Nec1 Equation 2, one can also relate these Depsipeptide trends in Figure 2d to the negative differential resistance trends of Figure 2b. In the reported device, the threshold voltage can be engineered by optimizing the side gate electrostatics to vary the modulation

factor α. Yet, another way to change the threshold voltage is by engineering the work function of the side gate materials to create an intrinsic electric field, thereby changing the BWo. n-EMT device characteristics are shown in Figure 2. Quinapyramine Similarly, by gate work-function and dielectric engineering, one can also achieve p-EMT characteristics by reversing the gate connections. Moreover, the optical phonon energy in graphene is about 200 meV. The choice of 0.2 V supply voltage allows us to ignore the electron–phonon inelastic scattering in these calculations. Next, we calculate the inverter characteristics using the complementary characteristics in Additional file 1. The voltage transfer curve of an inverter, formed by a p-EMT and an n-EMT connected back to back, is shown in Figure 3. The proposed symbols for n-EMT and p-EMT are also shown. The transfer characteristics show a steep slope. The high and low noise margins are 0.082V, which ensure a self-correcting digital operation. The maximum magnitude of gain is about 18, whereas the magnitude of gain around 0.1 V of input/output voltage is about 1.6.