When presented side by side, the minimal risks associated with the decision to vaccinate may be completely over-shadowed by the health risks associated with the decision to not vaccinate, potentially aiding parents and young adults in making decisions XL184 cell line about HPV vaccination. Communication concerning the high prevalence of HPV and the high likelihood of acquisition of the virus shortly after sexual debut also may be instrumental in conveying the risk of inaction as a counterpoint to discussion of risk of vaccination. As a note of caution, however, acknowledging the known minor risks associated with HPV vaccination (e.g.,
pain at the injection site, syncope, dizziness, mild fever) is very important. Recent research suggests that communicating that vaccination entails no risk may, paradoxically, lead patients to view vaccines as more risky ( Betsch and
Sachse, 2013). Particularly in the U.S., where HPV vaccination typically occurs in medical settings, the recommendation from a HCP plays a central role in the decision to receive HPV vaccine (Brewer et al., 2011 and Guerry et al., 2011). A recent study of Canadian undergraduates showed similar results (Krawczyk et al., 2012). Conversely, among those who have not received HPV vaccine, the lack of HCP recommendation has been identified as a major reason for non-vaccination (Liddon et al., 2012a and Zimet et al., 2010). While HCPs generally embrace their important role in recommending the HPV vaccine, these Selleck SRT1720 recommendations may nevertheless be unevenly carried out due to such issues as time constraints, patient age, availability of insurance PDK4 or other coverage, safety and/or efficacy concerns, and discussion of sexuality and information needs (Vadaparampil et al., 2011). Vaccine risk communication, in general, is a challenge to HCPs (Evans and Bostrom, 2002). Some providers feel that extensive discussion of risks and benefits of vaccines (including sexuality issues related to HPV transmission
in particular) might alarm rather than reassure and may take up too much time. Many HCPs report feeling uncomfortable engaging in discussions regarding sexuality with their adolescent patients (Esposito et al., 2007 and Schnatz et al., 2010), while others feel more comfortable discussing sexuality primarily with older adolescents or with males over females (Kahn et al., 2005 and Ko et al., 2010). One potential strategy for overcoming the problems associated with reliance on HCP recommendations would be to establish alternate venues for vaccination, such as schools or pharmacies. The success of school-based HPV vaccination policies, for example, is demonstrated by the high rates of vaccination achieved in Australia, the U.K., and Canada (Franceschi, 2010, Garland et al., 2011 and Shearer, 2011).