None of the other variables, age, site index, the dummy variable

None of the other variables, age, site index, the dummy variable for thinning, and the measures of stand density were significant. The variances of the random effects were 0.012347 for the stand and 0.118556 for the tree respectively. The random effect of the stand was not significant (p > Wald_z = 0.278). The only stand variable, affecting leaf area turned out to be the dominant height, which can be understood as a compensatory

measure for age and site class, indicating the stage of development of the stand. Thus, we conclude that the stand effect is sufficiently described by the dominant height of the stands. In order PF-02341066 chemical structure to describe and for a better understanding of the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area the final model can Icotinib cell line be rearranged as: equation(15) LACSA=e1.024⋅CSA−0.365⋅dbh0.944⋅hdom−0.840Furthermore,

at a given dominant height, i.e., within a stand, the dbh can be understood as a measure for the social position (crown class) of a tree within the stand, which can be described as hdom/dbh. Inserting the ratio, hdom/dbh, into Eq. (15) results in: equation(16) LACSA=2.784⋅CSA−0.369⋅hdom0.104⋅hdomdbh−0.944now describing the leaf area per crown surface area as a function of crown surface area, dominant height as a compensatory measure for age and site class, and the hdom/dbh, the social position of the tree within the stand. From this equation the sensitivity of the LA/CSA ratio to the independent variables can be easily studied. An increase of dominant STK38 height by 10% leads to an only 1% higher leaf area per crown surface area; an increase of 10% in crown surface area results in a decrease of this ratio by 3.5% and increasing the hdom/dbh ratio by 10% decreases the leaf area per crown surface area by 8.6%. Our findings confirm what many other authors stated, that sapwood area is a very precise measure for leaf area (e.g., Waring et al., 1982, Bancalari et al.,

1987 and Meadows and Hodges, 2002). Within stands, the sapwood area was a better indicator for leaf area, the nearer to the base of the crown it was determined (Table 3). However, the coefficients of the log-linear relationship between leaf area and sapwood area differed significantly between the investigated stands (Table 4). The sapwood area at breast height, which can be more easily determined than those higher up on the bole, exhibited the largest differences of the coefficients between the stands. This result is in line with several other studies where the stand was identified as a driver causing differences in the ratio leaf area to sapwood (Binkley and Reid, 1984, Long and Dean, 1986 and Coyea and Margolis, 1992).

So, the potential

synergistic effects between glucoevatro

So, the potential

synergistic effects between glucoevatromonoside and acyclovir were tested at different concentrations (Table 2). The results shown CI values <1 indicating synergism between these compounds. In the same way, Hartley et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate synergism between digoxin and furosemide and improvement of anti-adenovirus and anti-cytomegalovirus activity. These findings corroborate the potential antiherpetic activity of glucoevatromonoside and support its use Selleck MS 275 either alone or in combination with acyclovir for the treatment of herpes infections. Glucoevatromonoside is a natural cardiac glycoside, although its capacity of Na+K+ATPase inhibition has not been reported yet. Therefore, an anti-ATPase assay was performed to assess this potential Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist activity. Digoxigenin, digitoxin and digitoxin were used as positive controls (Pullen et al.,

2004), and digitoxose was used as a negative control. All tested cardenolides inhibited the Na+K+ATPase activity, and Table 3 shows the values of IC50. The Na+K+ATPase inhibition would justify the inhibition of virus release if the energy used by this process was obtained from this system (Nagai et al., 1972). Hence, the inhibition of viral protein synthesis caused by glucoevatromonoside could be explained by the reduction of K+ concentration into the cells, which is a consequence of the inhibition of this enzyme, since it is known that several enzymes, including those related to viral protein synthesis, require K+ for its activation (Di Cera, 2006). Due to the depletion of K+, it seems that the inhibition of viral

macromolecules by this cardenolide was not complete, because its antiviral activity was reversed when the K+ concentration was restored. Hence, we believe that the antiviral activity of glucoevatromonoside could be a consequence of its primary action on the cellular electrochemical gradient causing no damage to the host cells (Hartley Quinapyramine et al., 1993), and leading to a secondary action, which is the inhibition of viral replication. Accordingly, it acts discretely modifying the distribution and concentration of K+ intracellular ion, and also affecting the synthesis of essential co-factors in the viral replication. As it is well known, cardenolides have a long story of therapeutic applications and are frequently associated to systemic toxicity, but recent in vitro and in vivo toxicological results, and epidemiological data support new roles for such drugs in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer, neurological diseases and some viral infections ( Prassas and Diamandis, 2008). Taken together, the obtained results showed that glucoevatromonoside presents inhibitory effects of HSV-1 replication that seems to occur by the inhibition of viral protein synthesis (ICP27, UL42, gB and gD), the blockage of virus release, and the reduction of viral cell-to-cell spread.

Therefore, each compound was mixed with KBr and compressed under

Therefore, each compound was mixed with KBr and compressed under reduced pressure to form a pellet for IR absorbance measurement. However, spectroscopic interference derived from water absorption by the pellet required the use of an alternative method, in which the saponin was dissolved in MeOH, cast onto CaF2 or LiF plates, and allowed to evaporate. Ginsenosides Re (1), Rf (2), Rg2 (3), and 20-gluco-Rf (4) exhibited selleckchem absorption peaks corresponding to the O–H stretching of each hydroxyl group (3359, 3360, 3391, and 3360, respectively), C–H stretching (2929, 2924, 2930, and 2930), C=C stretching (1642, 1637, 1635, and

1635), C–H bending (1072, 1071, 1070, and 1074), and C–O bending (1045, 1031, 1048, and 1032). The multiple hydroxyl groups of ginsenosides also result in very low volatility.

Thus, mass spectra are usually obtained with FAB/MS instead of EI/MS. The soft ionization method FAB/MS distinguishes between molecular ions and fragment ions of relatively smaller proportions. The negative ionization method showed better spectrums for the ginsenosides than a positive ionization method. Ginsenoside Re (1) showed a molecular ion at m/z 945 ([M-H]–) and fragment ions peaks at m/z 765, 475, and 265. The molecular ion of ginsenoside Rf (2) was observed at m/z 799 ([M-H]–) with fragment peaks at m/z 475 and 325. Ginsenoside Rg2 (3) showed m/z 765 ([M-H2O-H]–) as a pseudomolecular ion peak and m/z 281 and 255 as fragment ion peaks. 20-Gluco-ginsenoside Rf (4) revealed a molecular ion peak at m/z 961 ([M-H]–) with a fragment ion peak at m/z 799. NMR spectra were obtained at 40°C from 0.08 M solutions of compounds dissolved in pyridine-d5. Each GSI-IX spectrum was the accumulation of eight scans for 1H-NMR and > 1024 scans for 13C-NMR. TMS was used as an internal standard adjusted to 0 ppm. Because ginsenoside Re (1) contains two attached

sugar moieties, it dissolved easily in methanol, pyridine, and DMSO. Pyridine-d5 has few double bonds and many oxygen-linked carbon atoms so it was a better solvent for NMR measurements because it resulted in less overlap between the ginsenoside- and solvent-derived signals than deuterated methanol or DMSO-d6. The methyl carbon atoms C-18, C-19, C-29, and C-30 of ginsenoside Re (1) in pyridine-d5 corresponded to peaks at δC 17.386, 17.628, 17.780, and 17.325, respectively. However, the Olopatadine order of the chemical shifts differed from those in the literature [7], [8] and [11]. The carbon signals were confirmed based on cross peaks with corresponding proton signals for C-18, C-19, C-29, and C-30 at δH 1.14, 0.93, 1.33, and 0.92, respectively, in the HSQC spectrum ( Fig. 2A). Cross peaks were also seen in the HMBC spectrum, with H-26 at δH 1.58 showing cross peaks with the carbon signal at δC 17.886 (C-27), and H-28 at δH 2.04 with the carbon signal at δC 17.780 (C-29; Fig. 3A). Methylene proton signals H-15 (δH 0.82, 1.48) and H-22 (δH 1.75, 2.34) differed from the chemical shifts in the literature [5] and [8].

The authors are therefore

The authors are therefore Veliparib chemical structure retracting this article. MH accepts responsibility for the error. “
“The hot-hand fallacy and gamblers’ fallacy are assumed to be common among gamblers because it

is thought that they believe that outcomes for future bets are predictable from those of previous ones. The term a “hot hand” was initially used in basketball to describe a basketball player who had been very successful in scoring over a short period. It was believed that such a player had a “hot hand” and that other players should pass the ball to him to score more. This term is now used more generally to describe someone who is winning persistently and can be regarded as “in luck”. In gambling scenarios, a player with a genuine hot hand should keep betting and bet more. There have been extensive discussions about

the existence of the hot hand effect. Some researchers have failed to find any evidence of such an effect (Gilovich et al., 1985, Koehler and Conley, 2003, Larkey et al., 1989 and Wardrop, 1999). Others claim there is evidence of the hot hand effect in games that require considerable physical skill, such as golf, darts, and basketball (Arkes, 2010, Arkes, 2011, Gilden and Wilson, 1995 and Yaari and Eisenmann, 2011). People gambling on sports outcomes may continue to do so after winning because they learn more believe they have a hot hand. Such a belief may be a fallacy. It is, however, possible that their belief is reasonable. For example, on some occasions, they may realize that their betting strategy is producing profits and that it would be sensible to continue with it. Alternatively, a hot hand could arise from some change in their betting strategy. For example, after winning, they may modify their bets in some way to increase their chances of winning again.

People gambling on sports outcomes may continue to do so after losing because they believe in the gamblers’ fallacy. This is the erroneous belief that deviations from initial expectations are corrected even when outcomes are produced by independent random processes. Thus, people’s initial expectations that, in the long run, tosses of a fair coin will result in a 50:50 chance of heads and tails are associated with a belief that Etofibrate deviations from that ratio will be corrected. Hence, if five tosses of a fair coin have produced a sequence of five heads, the chance of tails on the next toss will be judged to be larger than 50%. This is because the coin “ought to” have a 50:50 chance of heads and tails in the long run and, as a result, more tails are “needed” to correct the deviation from that ratio produced by the first five tosses. Betting strategies are often based on the previous betting results (Oskarsson, Van Boven, McClelland, & Hastie, 2009). The strategies based on a belief in a hot hand and gamblers’ fallacy may conflict.

Sites with more woodlands, tree plantations, and mixed (rotationa

Sites with more woodlands, tree plantations, and mixed (rotational) agricultural practices such as GC3, GC4, and GC6 had higher k and ergosterol levels. The stream, golf course interaction is evident in the PLS plot, but

the pattern does not clearly capture why benthic groups responded differently in direction to golf courses ( Fig. 6 and Fig. 7A). GC1, GC3, and GC4 formed a group of streams that had Talazoparib higher k and ergosterol content and lower Rleaf, N2 flux, and Chlrock after the stream passing through the golf course facility ( Fig. 7A). The opposite pattern was evident for GC5 and GC6 ( Fig. 7A). GC2 was similar up and downstream of its golf course. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.019) was found connecting the difference between up and downstream benthic group PLS1 and the percent anthropogenic land use at the downstream sampling point (excluding GC2; Fig. 7B). This relationship suggested that the benthic response to golf course facilities was dependent on the anthropogenic land use in the riparian zone. The goal of this study

was to determine how golf course this website facilities affected stream function in the context of the land use and cover in the watershed. Based on previous observations (Williams et al., 2010, Wilson and Xenopoulos, 2008 and Wilson and Xenopoulos, 2009), we put forward that the desired stream condition in Southern Ontario streams is low nutrient levels, humic-like DOM, and slow organic matter decomposition. This study found that differences in stream functional attributes up and downstream of golf course facilities

were subtle to absent for water quality and DOM characteristics and complex for benthic parameters. After flowing through an 18-hole golf course facility, the water column of streams showed small declines in DOC and HIX and small increases in TDP and the relative protein content of the DOM (C7), suggesting that golf course facilities negatively impacted stream function. Multivariate patterns, however, were not evident. Overall, these water column patterns were weak, which could stem from local golf course practices and the timing and design of this study. Unlike the water column grab samples, the benthic parameter group response to golf course facilities was Tobramycin distinct, but varied by stream and the overall human land use in the riparian zone. At sites with around 50% anthropogenic land use, streams had lower leaf break down rates and ergosterol content but higher leaf respiration and N2 flux rates downstream of the golf course facilities. At sites with greater than 60% anthropogenic land use, excluding GC2 which did not respond to golf courses, streams had higher leaf break down rates and ergosterol content but lower leaf respiration and N2 flux rates downstream of the golf course facilities.

On the other hand, new civil protection challenges arise in local

On the other hand, new civil protection challenges arise in localized areas and periods

of the year, from an increasing pressure brought by mountain tourism. Preparedness is becoming Icotinib a core issue where the wildland–urban interface is being expanded, and new strategies have to be considered, along with actual impacts of fires on the ecosystem services, especially within the perspective of integrating fire and erosion risk management. We gratefully acknowledge the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, for providing forest fires data (yearly burnt area) accessible from the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). They have been used for calculating statistics about the incidence of forest fires in the Alpine Nintedanib mw region during last decades. “
“In 2003, an editorial in the journal Nature ( Nature editorial, 2003) proclaimed that human activity has created an Anthropogenic Earth, and that we now lived in the Anthropocene, an epoch where human–landscape interactions alter the Earth morphology, ecosystems and processes ( Ellis, 2011, Zalasiewicz et al., 2008, Zalasiewicz et al., 2011, Tarolli et al., 2013, Tarolli, 2014, Tarolli et al., 2014a and Tarolli et al., 2014b). One of the most important human domination of land systems is the creation of the reclamation and drainage networks that have a key role in agricultural and environmental sustainability, and can transform

landscapes and shape history ( Earle and Doyle, 2008). Following the land-use changes, drainage networks faced deep alterations due to urbanization and soil consumption ( Cazorzi et al., 2013), but also due to demographic pressure ( Fumagalli, 1976, Hallam, 1961 and Millar and Hatcher, 1978),

and changes in technological innovation ( Magnusson, 2001 and van Dam, 2001), and agricultural techniques. At the same time drainage networks faced an under-investment in their provision and maintenance ( Scheumann and Freisem, 2001) with insufficient evacuation of water runoff in large parts of the reclaimed areas ( Curtis and Campopiano, 2012), and they became crucial in the control of flood generations ( Gallart et al., 1994, Voltz et al., 1998, Marofi, 1999, Moussa et al., 2002, Evrard et al., 2007, Pinter et al., 2006, Bronstert et al., 2001, Pfister et al., 2004, Savenije, Isotretinoin 1995, Wheater, 2006 and Palmer and Smith, 2013). In earlier times and with less available technology, land drainage and land use was largely determined by the function that could be performed by the natural soil. However, in the course of the last century this relation between soil draining functions and land use has been lost to a certain extent ( Scalenghe and Ajmone-Marsan, 2009), and numerous researches underlined how land use changes altered the local hydrological characteristics ( Bronstert et al., 2001, Brath et al., 2006, Camorani et al., 2005, Heathwaite et al., 1989, Heathwaite et al.

2 ± 0 1 mg/kg/d,ym divided in two doses, despite we have tried in

2 ± 0.1 mg/kg/d,ym divided in two doses, despite we have tried in 6; one patient presented severe hypotension and the drug was withdrawn. No significant changes were observed in height-for-age Z-score (median at the beginning

of treatment = -2.5 [-4.3 to -2.2]; median at the end = -3.0 [-3.9 to -1.21]; p = 0.8), nor in the weight-for-age Z-score (median at the beginning of treatment = -2.1 [-2.7 to -0.9]; median at the end= -2.7 [-3.8 to -0.3]; p = 0.4). The creatinine clearance showed no statistically significant differences, from median 150 (107-183) to 138 (62-160) (p = 0.18); however, a decrease was observed in four patients, one of whom below Protease Inhibitor Library cell line 90 mL/min/1.73m2BS. In this case, the dose of enalapril was reduced. Fig. 1 presents the weight-for-age Z-score, Fig. 2 shows the height-for-age Z-score at the beginning and at the end of the treatment with each drug. Fig. 3 presents the creatinine clearance during the treatment AZD6244 molecular weight with each drug. Seven patients developed microalbuminuria during treatment

with indomethacin; in five patients, the problem resolved when their treatment was converted to celecoxib; however, four patients developed microalbuminuria during the use of celecoxib. Patients with proteinuria had their treatment converted to ACEi, and presented a significant reduction: median was 76.2% (62.8%-80.6%). Table 1 presents the average of serum potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate levels of patients during each drug and the amount of potassium supplementation including data from each six months. No significant differences

were observed in serum potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate levels during the use of the three drugs. No significant differences were observed between the amount of potassium supplementation during the use of indomethacin and celecoxib (p = 0.8). Although no significant differences were detected in the amount of potassium supplementation during indomethacin and ACEi (p = 0.09) and celecoxib and ACEi (p = 0.2), a tendency to supplement a larger amount of potassium during ACEi was observed, as seen in Table 1. In BS, an over activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and an over production of PGs can be observed. Those findings are Oxymatrine the result of sodium, chloride, and potassium urinary wasting. Therefore, the recommended treatment has been based on potassium supplementation, a PGs inhibitor;7 and 8 spironolactone1 is also an option, but with transient effect, and ACEi has been used in some studies.9 Indomethacin has been long employed in the treatment of these patients. Studies have demonstrated that with indomethacin, spironolactone, and potassium chloride supplementation and, sometimes, sodium chloride supplementation, patients experience improvement in growth speed, weight gain, and metabolic stability.10 However, there are significant GI effects resulting from inhibition of cyclooxygenase (Cox) 1.

As for height, no alteration was observed in the test group In t

As for height, no alteration was observed in the test group. In the control group, the decrease in the mean z-score for H/A, although statistically significant, was not relevant from a clinical viewpoint, considering that this decrease did not cause alterations in the nutritional status. In this respect, this study differs from another recently published study, which showed that zinc supplementation effectively contributed to the growth of children under the age of 5 years, and that the dose of 10 mg/day, offered during 24 weeks, promoted best results for height increase.22 Although it is not possible to identify the reasons for the abovementioned discrepancy,

both the short intervention period,

perhaps insufficient to identify changes in anthropometry especially with regard to height, and the dose of zinc used, Lumacaftor cost may have been limiting factors in this study. Regarding DD, although the incidence was lower in the test group, the difference compared to the control group was not significant and, additionally, there was no difference in the duration of disease episodes between the groups. This result is similar to those of two other studies with children supplemented with zinc for 14 days, which showed no significant effects in reducing the incidence or prevalence of DD.23 and 24 The different result obtained in a study selleck chemicals llc conducted in Brazil is noteworthy. In that study, zinc supplementation was proven to be effective in reducing the duration and number of stools in children aged 3 to 60 months who had DD.25 Contrary to what was described for DD, the test group showed a higher risk of developing ARI (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate when compared to control group; however, these findings were not statistically significant. A meta-analysis published by Aggarwal et al. evaluated the performance of zinc supplementation and concluded that it reduced the incidence of ARI in children by 8%.26 A Brazilian study with children with low birth weight found

a 33% reduction in the prevalence of coughing among the group supplemented with 5 mg/day of zinc. No significant difference, however, was observed when other characteristic symptoms of respiratory infection (fever, increased respiratory rate, and fatigue) were analyzed.27 The fact that this study found no positive results regarding zinc supplementation on the occurrence of the assessed diseases may be due to the healthy status of the study population. Most published studies used as a sample children who already had DD or ARI,23 and 24 malnutrition, or impaired immune function, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.28 It is worth mentioning that several factors, such as low immunity, malnutrition, and poor hygiene10 and 29 are involved in the etiology of the diseases being assessed.

Multiple linear regression analyses using the Z-scores of BP as d

Multiple linear regression analyses using the Z-scores of BP as dependent variables demonstrated that when the

variables associated with SAH were evaluated together, Selleckchem JQ1 only the Z-score of BMI (p = 0.02) and age (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with the Z-score of SBP, whereas the independent predictors of DBP were Z-score of BMI (p = 0.03), male gender (p = 0.01), and family history of SAH (p = 0.01). These predictive models were able to explain 8% of the variability of Z-score of the SBP and 10% of the variability of Z-score of DBP. Multiple logistic regression using the presence or absence of high BP as the dependent variable, in turn, emphasized once again the important role of the presence of overweight (p < 0.001, OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 18.7) and family history of SAH, particularly maternal SAH (p = 0.008, OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.5 to 16.2) in determining risk of high BP in these children. SAH in children is a clinical condition that has been

unacknowledged until recently, and it is often overlooked in clinical practice. Currently, the impact of early diagnosis is indisputable, both for the possibility of identifying secondary causes, VE-821 ic50 as well as preventing its progression to adverse cardiovascular events. The public health problem is amplified due to the misconception by health professionals that this disease is rare in children, resulting in delayed diagnosis and lack of epidemiological data in most Brazilian cities. The estimated prevalence in this sample, 7% Bay 11-7085 of children with elevated BP, is significant and reinforces the idea that the disease is not as rare as previously thought. There are few studies in Brazil that evaluated this information based on the most recent criteria, established in 2004.14 Nevertheless, the available studies presented results that ranged from 2.7% to 13.8% in children aged 7 to 12 years, which is similar to that observed in the present study.11, 14, 15 and 16 The low frequency of previous measurements of BP in these children (21.7%) is noteworthy,

which probably results in underdiagnosis, as suggested by other authors.11, 17, 18 and 19 It is likely related to factors such as underdiagnosis in the clinical setting, as well as the methodological complexity required for its diagnosis.19 Regarding risk markers, the importance of factors such as the presence of overweight and family history of SAH is noteworthy, which demonstrated consistent association with the presence of high BP in these children in the different analyses. Although the identification of these markers may not be reproducible in other populations, and are far from explaining the complex etiopathogenesis of this disorder, it is important that health professionals are aware of their presence to identify children especially susceptible to the disease.

Briefly, RAW 264 7 cells grown on a 75 cm2 culture dish were seed

Briefly, RAW 264.7 cells grown on a 75 cm2 culture dish were seeded in 96 well plates at a density of 2×105 cells/well. Adhered cells were then incubated for 24 h with or without 1 μg mL−1 of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the absence or presence of 10 μM recombinant crystallin. The activated continuously with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg mL−1) for 24 h as the positive control. Nitrite in culture supernatants was measured by adding 100 μL of Griess reagent (1% sulfanilamide and 0.1% N-[1-naphthyl]-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride in 5% phosphoric GS-7340 clinical trial acid) to 100 μL samples of the medium for 10 min at room temperature. The optical density at 570 nm was measured using a Multiskan RC photometric

microplate reader (Labsystems, Helsinki, Finland). A NO standard curve was made with sodium nitrite. The detection limit of the assay was 0.5 μM. Immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the formation of punctated

crystallin foci was conducted essentially as described previously [31]. Briefly, cells were seeded into wells of a six-well culture plate containing a glass coverslip in each well. After treatment, cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min, washed with PBS, and permeabilized in 0.2% Triton X-100. After blockage with blocking serum for 1 h, samples were incubated with a rabbit polyclonal anti-crystallin antibody overnight at 4 °C, followed by Alexa-Fluor 594-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody at room temperature for 1 h. To stain the nuclei, 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase dihydrochloride was added to the cells, which were then incubated for another 15 min. Each coverslip HDAC inhibitor was then removed from the plate, mounted on a glass slide, and observed with an Olympus

IX70 fluorescence microscope. To assess the effect of nodavirus-infected grouper on ROS production, the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe DCFDA was used. Nodavirus-infected cells increased ROS production by 2.4-fold, comparing to noninfected cells, whereas ROS production was blocked by the antioxidant compound N-acetylcysteine (NAC; Fig. 1A). Because nodavirus infection leads to an inflammatory response and an increase in the basal oxidative stress, the next experiment determined the formation of dityrosine, serving as a marker of oxidatively modified proteins, in cells exposed to oxygen-free radicals. Dityrosine was prepared by incubation of tyrosine with horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2. Dityrosine could be distinguished by the intense 420 nm fluorescence, measurable upon ultraviolet spectroscopy over a wavelength range of 254–365 nm, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 1A. Tyrosine and dityrosine were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with an ultraviolet detection wavelength of 280 nm. A typical chromatogram is shown in Supplementary Fig. 1B. Tyrosine and dityrosine eluted at 5.2 and 6.8 min, respectively.