Patients with hematuria had significantly lower renal function, a

Patients with hematuria had significantly lower renal function, and the prevalences of nephrotic syndrome and retinopathy were significantly higher than in patients without hematuria. Interestingly, based on a logistic selleck compound regression analysis, the presence of nephrotic syndrome and a known duration of diabetes were identified as significant predictors for hematuria with diabetic nephropathy. Concluding remarks and future directions Deep insights into the onset and progression of albuminuria along with GFR may elucidate the pathogenesis of progressive kidney complications and Cell Cycle inhibitor associated cardiovascular diseases. Further studies of the clinical characteristics and the pathological findings

of kidney involvement in patients with diabetes are required for a better understanding of diabetic nephropathy and the benefits of therapy for it. Acknowledgments This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Diabetic Nephropathy Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. References 1. Nakai S, Suzuki K, Masakane I, Wada A, Itami N, Ogata S, et al. Overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2008). Ther Apher Dial. 2010;14:505–40.PubMedCrossRef 2. Nakayama M, Sato T, Sato H, Yamaguchi Y, Obara K, Kurihara I, et al. Different

clinical outcomes for cardiovascular events and mortality in chronic kidney disease according to underlying Selleck Everolimus renal disease: the Gonryo study. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:333–9.PubMedCrossRef 3. Foley RN, Culleton BF, Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Kent GM, Murray DC, et al. Cardiac diseases in diabetic end-stage renal disease. Diabetologia. 1997;40:1307–12.PubMedCrossRef 4. Saito Y, Kida H, Takeda S, Yoshimura M, Yokoyama H, Koshino Y, et al. Mesangiolysis C1GALT1 in diabetic glomeruli: its role in the formation of nodular lesions.

Kidney Int. 1988;34:389–96.PubMedCrossRef 5. Wada T, Furuichi K, Sakai N, Iwata Y, Yoshimoto K, Shimizu M, et al. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in tubulointerstitial lesions in human diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2000;58:1492–9.PubMedCrossRef 6. Furuichi K, Hisada Y, Shimizu M, Okumura T, Kitagawa K, Yoshimoto K et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) affect the remodeling of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic OLETF rat. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 (Epub ahead of print). 7. Parving HH. Diabetic nephropathy: prevention and treatment. Kidney Int. 2001;60:2041–55.PubMedCrossRef 8. Mogensen CE, Christensen CK, Vittinghus E. The stages in diabetic renal disease. With emphasis on the stage of incipient diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 1983;32(Suppl 2):64–78.PubMed 9. Shigeta Y, Kikkawa R. Diabetic nephropathy in Japan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;24(Suppl):S191–7.PubMedCrossRef 10. Guideline Committee of the Japan Diabetes Society.

4 The MAS5

4. The MAS5 signal intensity for all the probes on the chip was determined. Comparison of rankings Microarray data from studies

of planktonic bacteria listed in Table 2 were used to interpret the data from our own microarrays. The available signal intensity data for all the probes on each microarray were downloaded from the NIH’s gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and imported into Microsoft Excel along with our own microarray signal intensities. Our microarray data have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus [92] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE22164. For all of these data sets the probe intensities from each microarray were sorted from highest to lowest and the ranking for each of the loci of interest was taken as an average of the mTOR inhibitor ranking from individual replicates. Three of these data sets were repeatedly used as comparators; results of these particular comparators appear on most of the graphs in Figures 3, 5, and 6 and are the basis of the averaged comparator ranks reported in Table 3. These three data sets were the 20% oxygen condition

of Alvarez-Ortega and Harwood [15]; the untreated control of Teitzel et al [20]; and the untreated control of Nalca et al. [18]. The first two were reported to be exponential phase cultures and the latter was described as an early stationary phase culture. To compile the list of genes up-regulated in drip-flow biofilms, the average rank in the drip-flow biofilm data set was compared to the average rank in the three comparator data sets named above. The fold change in the rank between the biofilm and the Selleckchem AZD1152 planktonic comparators was calculated and the 100 genes with the highest fold change were tabulated. Statistics Claims Ixazomib of statistically significant differences in transcriptome ranks are based on 109 individual two sample Welch t-tests (i.e. heterogeneous variances are modeled) on the ranks of each sample using a family-wise false discovery rate of 5% [93]. These analyses are similar to the non-parametric

Friedman and Mack-Skillings rank tests used for the analysis of microarray data [94–97]. This approach is more conservative than the pooled t-test analysis of rank data advocated by Conover [98] since the Welch t-test models the obvious heteroscedastic variability between the ranks of the drip flow biofilm transcriptome and the ranks of the comparator transcriptomes. Acknowledgements This work was supported by NIH awards R01GM067245-02 and R01DC04173-01A1 and by an award from the W. M. Keck Foundation. Microscopy was facilitated by equipment made possible by an award from the M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust. Support for the Montana State University selleck bioinformatics core (NCRR INBRE award P20 RR016455, COBRE award P20 RR020185, NSF IGERT award DGE-0654336, NSF EPSCoR award EPS-0701906) and genomics core (NCRR INBRE award P20 RR016455) is gratefully acknowledged. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: P.

980 (Shigella flexneri) – n d   1037 Escherichia coli 0 930 SLT-

980 (Shigella flexneri) – n.d.   1037 Escherichia coli 0.930 SLT-II n.d.   3137 Pediococcus acidilactici 0.990 n.d. +   3140 Pediococcus acidilactici 1.000 n.d. +   3141 Enterococcus faecalis 0.990 n.d. n.d.   3226 Pediococcus acidilactici 0.990 n.d. – 2367 (Healthy) 3136 Staphylococcus Bindarit solubility dmso warneri 0.993 n.d. n.d. 2374 (Healthy) 1062 Escherichia coli 0.976 (Shigella flexneri) SLT-II n.d.   2027 Bacillus licheniformis 0.982 n.d. n.d.   2028 Bacillus

licheniformis 0.978 n.d. n.d.   3251 Streptococcus pluranimalium 0.990 n.d. n.d. 2409 (Healthy) 1046 Escherichia coli 0.978 (Shigella flexneri) – n.d.   3135 Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis 0.991 n.d. n.d. 2426 (Healthy) 2023 Bacillus altitudinis 0.998 n.d. n.d.   2024 Bacillus pumilus 0.981 n.d. n.d. *2211-A (Infected) 1036 Escherichia coli 0.981(Shigella flexneri) – n.d.   3139 Enterococcus faecalis 0.980 n.d. n.d. *2211-B (Infected) 1174 Escherichia

coli 0.980 – n.d.   1176 Escherichia coli 0.980 – n.d.   2044 Bacillus licheniformis 0.998 n.d. n.d.   2045 Bacillus galactosidilyticus 0.990 n.d. n.d.   2049 Bacillus oleronius 0.990 n.d. n.d.   2052 Rummeliibacillus pycnus 0.970 n.d. n.d. 2312 (Infected) 2039 Bacillus licheniformis 0.982 n.d. n.d.   2047 Lysinibacillus fusiformis Dactolisib cell line 0.970 n.d. n.d.   2048 Sporosarcina contaminans 0.980 n.d. n.d.   2050 Streptococcus thoraltensis 0.990 n.d. n.d.   2051 Rummeliibacillus pycnus 0.970 n.d. n.d.   3308 Lactobacillus mucosae 0.996 n.d. n.d. C225 2373 (Infected) 1063 Escherichia coli 0.987 (Shigella flexneri / Escherichia fergusonii) – n.d. 2429 (Infected) 3227 Staphylococcus warneri 0.990 n.d. n.d.   3138 Pediococcus acidilactici 0.990 n.d. + 2435 (Infected) 1049 Escherichia coli 0.980 (Shigella flexneri / Escherichia fergusonii) – n.d. 2436 (Infected) 1070 Escherichia coli 0.973 (Escherichia fergusonii) – n.d. 2507 (Infected) 1064 Escherichia coli 0.960 (Shigella flexneri) SLT-I n.d.   3180 Streptococcus pluranimalium 0.990 n.d. n.d.   2029 Bacillus licheniformis 0.995 n.d. n.d. (a) % identity of partial 16S rDNA to type strain

or closest relative; +: positive PCR results; -: negative PCR results; n.d.: data not PHA-848125 ic50 determined *Cow #2211-A and 2211-B represent two different animals that were assigned the same number at different times. Healthy, pregnant animals and those diagnosed with post partum uterine infections at the time of sampling are indicated in brackets. Bacilli, staphylococci, and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Escherichia coli were also frequently isolated, particularly from infected animals. Isolates were screened for the presence of SLT-I and SLT-II genes, sample results for their PCR detection in E. coli isolates are shown in Figure 1a and Figure 1b, respectively. E. coli FUA1064 isolated from cow #2507 harboured the SLT-I gene, while E.

In comparison to the wild type, these results suggest that RpoS i

In comparison to the wild type, these results suggest that RpoS is important for

chitobiose utilization, as the rpoS mutant cultured in the absence of free GlcNAc and supplemented with chitobiose could not initially utilize free chitobiose as a source of GlcNAc. A74 cultured in the presence of 150 μM chitobiose reached a peak cell density after the second exponential phase of 4.8 × 107 cells ml-1 by 334 h before entering stationary phase. In contrast, A74 cultured in the presence of 15 μM chitobiose reached a peak density of 2.2 3-MA × 107 cells ml-1 at 287 hours before AZD1152 ic50 blebbing and entering a second death phase in which cell numbers declined to 1.5 × 105 cells ml-1. At 525 h, cells cultured with 15 μM chitobiose entered a third exponential growth phase, and grew to a peak cell density of 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 before entering stationary phase. With exception of the first death phase, these results are consistent with those obtained for the wild type cultured in 15 μM chitobiose, and further support our hypothesis that the source of GlcNAc during growth in the second exponential phase in the wild type, and the third exponential phase in the rpoS mutant, is

not free chitobiose. Inspection of A74 growth without GlcNAc and without chitobiose revealed triphasic growth similar to, though less pronounced find more than, that observed in A74 cultured in 15 μM chitobiose (Fig. 4B). As expected, cells reached a density of 2.2 × 106 cells ml-1 in the first exponential phase before blebbing and entering the first death phase. At 189 h the rpoS mutant entered a second exponential phase, and reached a peak density of 6.5 × 105 cells ml-1 at 236 h. This second exponential phase corresponds to that observed when A74 is grown in the presence of chitobiose, suggesting there is a small amount of free chitobiose present

in BSK-II. After a second death phase, cells entered a third exponential phase at 385 h and Selleck Baf-A1 reached a peak cell density of 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 at 574 h before entering stationary phase. This final exponential phase may explain the slight increase in chbC expression observed by qRT-PCR at 381 h (Fig. 3). To confirm the role of RpoS in chitobiose utilization, we evaluated the growth of the rpoS complemented mutant, WC12, in BSK-II without GlcNAc and supplemented with low (5 μM) and high (75 μM) concentrations of chitobiose (Fig. 4C). As expected, growth of the complemented mutant was similar to that observed for the wild type. In the presence of high concentrations of chitobiose, the complemented mutant exhibited a single exponential phase and reached a peak density of 8.2 × 107 cells ml-1 by 117 h before entering stationary phase. In contrast, when the complemented mutant was cultured with the low concentration (5 μM) of chitobiose biphasic growth was observed. In the first exponential phase cells grew to a peak cell density of 5.2 × 106 cells ml-1 at 96 h before blebbing and entering a death phase. This was a 3.

These patterns (SB1763–1767) reveal

These patterns (SB1763–1767) reveal GDC-0068 order deletion events that could have lead to new spoligotype patterns evolving, as was the case in Portugal [30]. However, more detailed studies need to be conducted to fully ascertain this assertion. The sharing of grazing land in the Kafue Basin in Zambia between cattle and Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis), considered as wildlife biological reservoir hosts for BTB, might explain

the high prevalence levels found in this setting [3, 4, 6, 33]. Underlying factors in sustaining the infectious agent depend on the temporal and spatial distribution between the source of infection and the susceptible animals, which also are a function of the duration of interaction between the agent, the susceptible host and its environment [34]. The underlying factors for BTB transmission between the Lechwe antelopes and cattle are reported to be optimal in the Kafue Basin [3, 6], although further investigations at molecular level will be necessary

to elucidate this relationship. The tracing of livestock movement patterns from their areas of origin to major abattoirs is important in understanding possible disease dispersion patterns. Cattle traders trek for days from areas within and around the Kafue Basin to abattoirs in the nearby districts[3]. In our study, we observed that identical and closely related strains were also found in other districts. These Rucaparib order findings KPT 330 suggest the sharing of strains between districts, a finding which is important when determining BTB localization or spread. Namwala district (the only district right in the Kafue Basin) [8] was found to have more

isolates than any other district. The practice of allowing trekking animals to spend one or more nights in different kraals during the journey to abattoirs may partially be responsible for the dissemination of the infectious organisms. This pattern of animal QNZ concentration movements may to a greater extent be responsible to the observed dispersion of spoligotype patterns suggestively, based on our results from the Namwala district zones to other surrounding districts. However, these results need to be interpreted with caution considering limitations related to the survey period and sample size related to limited resources and time constraints. This makes the results a bit difficult to interpret when inferring to the entire region given the representativeness of the sample size. In addition, the spoligotyping technique has weaknesses in that it has a low discriminatory power [29] which may result in low specificity of some patterns with a possibility of grouping strains that might not be identical when typed by other methods. However, the results obtained in this study give an indication of M. bovis strains in cattle with an insight in the likely role that cattle movements have on the dissemination of the disease.


if any effect from degradation exists, it should


if any effect from degradation exists, it should be similar for cases and controls because of the matching for date at recruitment. At the time of the WNYHC recall, we tested control subjects for a potential presence of latent prostate cancer by serum analysis for PSA and, for those men whose PSA value exceeded the pre-defined cut-off, by prostate LY2874455 clinical trial biopsy. This approach increases our confidence in the case-control definition and reduces the possibility for misclassification bias. We adopted several strategies to control for potential sources of hormone variability. In conducting the WNYHC recruitment and recall, we applied inclusion criteria requiring the absence of pathologic conditions altering hormone metabolism selleck kinase inhibitor (i.e. type 2 diabetes). We observed highly standardized conditions at sample collection, handling and assaying. All hormone determinations were performed at the end of the study, to reduce technical variability.

We also evaluated the intra-individual variability of 2-OHE1, 16αOHE1 and their ratio in a previously conducted study [13]. The resulting intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated high reliability, thus reducing the chance that a measurement error might have affected the study results to a significant extent. Our study also has several limitations. The sample size was very small, especially for cases, Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) and none of the provided estimates reached statistical significance in the original study. The small sample size might have limited our ability to detect the investigated associations. Selection bias is another source of possible concern for several reasons. First, the participation rate was quite low (67%) and unfortunately we had limited information allowing a comparison between participating and non-participating subjects. Indeed, the lack of mortality or co-morbidity data prevented us from characterizing those members of the original cohort who were excluded because of diseases other than Pca or death. The final comparison between the 575 men who joined the study

and the 517 cohort members who did not show significant differences. The exclusion of participants with missing data either for any of the outcome variables or any of the considered variables represents an additional, potential source of bias. Neither the analyses conducted by subsets including only one of the outcome variables, nor the analyses performed by case-case and control-control comparison between subject with and without missing data items showed significant results. We conducted a systematic search of the literature and combined the available results in a meta-analysis. We found significant evidence supporting the protective role of the metabolic Acalabrutinib datasheet pathway favoring 2-hydroxylation over 16α-hydroxylation in Pca development.

Figure 8 Initial exploitation properties of integrated thick film

Figure 8 Initial exploitation properties of integrated thick film p-i-p + structures. Figure 9 Exploitation properties of integrated p-i-p + thick-film structures after degradation transformation at 40°C and RH = 95% for 240 h. Since all components are of the same chemical type (spinel-like) and possess high temperature/humidity sensitivities, they will be positively distinguished not only by wider functionality (simultaneous temperature-humidity click here sensing) but also by unique functional reliability and stability.

In the case under consideration, the main advantages proper to bulk transition-metal manganite ceramics (wide range of electrical resistance with high temperature sensitivity) and humidity-sensitive MgAl2O4 ceramics will be transformed

into thick-film see more multilayers, resulting in a principally new and more stretched functionality. Conclusion Integrated temperature-humidity sensitive thick-film p-i-p+ structures with optimal grain-pore structures, where p+-conductive layers was used as a conductive layer, were obtained and studied. Temperature-sensitive thick-film structures possess good temperature sensitivity in the region from 298 to 358 K. The humidity-sensitive elements possess linear dependence of electrical resistance on relative humidity in semilogarithmic scale with some hysteresis in the range of RH ~ 60% to 99%. After degradation transformation, the hysteresis is minimized due to saturation of some nanopores by water, which provide effective adsorption-desorption processes in elements. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the support from the Fakultät für Informations-, Medien- und Elektrotechnik, Fachhochschule Köln/University of Applied Sciences Cologne

(Köln, Deutschland). References 1. Sheftel IT: Thermoresistors. Moscow: Nauka; 1973:415. 2. Zaharov VI, Olesk AO: Materials and technology for NTC thick-film Savolitinib nmr thermistors manufacturing. Elektronnaja Tehnika, Ser. Radiodetali i Komponenty 1989, 63:30–34. 3. Zaharov VI, Olesk AO: Film thermistors. Zarubeznaja Elektronnaja Tehnika 1983, 5:43–74. 4. Zhong J, Bau HH: Thick-film thermistors printed on LTCC tapes. J Am Ceram Soc Bull 2001, 80:39–42. 5. Feingold AH, Wahlers RL, Amstutz P, Huang C, Stein SJ, Mazzochette J: New microwave Methocarbamol applications for thick-film thermistors. Microw J 2000, 1:90–98. 6. Qu W: Development of multi-functional sensors in thick-film and thin-film technology. Meas Sci Technol 2000, 11:1111–1115.CrossRef 7. White NW, Turner JD: Thick-film sensors: past, present and future. Meas Sci Technol 1997, 8:1–4.CrossRef 8. Dziedzic A: Thick-film resistive temperature sensors. Meas Sci Technol 1997, 8:78–81.CrossRef 9. Holc J: Temperature characteristics of electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 thick-film, humidity sensors. Sensor Actuator 1995, B 26/27:99–102.CrossRef 10.

MEB participated in the phagocytosis assays and analysis of data

MEB participated in the phagocytosis assays and analysis of data and contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final draft.”
“Background Plasmids have been indispensable tools in the development of molecular biology and much of our understanding of their biology has been based on a small number of model replicon transmissible elements. However, less is known about natural plasmids and in particular, the

interplay between plasmids and their host strains. Bacterial plasmids are widely recognised for their role in the expansion and dissemination of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes selleck kinase inhibitor both between members of the same species and to new bacterial hosts of different species [1, 2]. Their ability to acquire and spread either single or multiple antibiotic resistance genes to pathogens has become a considerable problem and an obstacle to successful therapeutic treatment [3]. This is compounded

by the lack of development of new effective antibiotics, particularly against infections caused by Gram negative bacteria with plasmid mediated antibiotic resistances, which are causing significant global clinical problems [4]. The recent emergence of genes including β-lactamases which confer resistance to the commonly used β-lactam class of antibiotics, can largely be attributed to the spread and persistence selleckchem of successful plasmids in a wide range of bacterial hosts [5–7]. However, despite their importance and the recently generated wealth of plasmid sequence data [8], our knowledge of the factors which allow plasmids to maintain antibiotic resistance genes, to remain stable in bacterial populations in the absence of selective pressure, and to successfully spread to different bacterial strains is very poor. In Loperamide elementary terms the evolutionary success of a plasmid is reliant on (1) the ability to transfer

vertically to daughter cells of the host bacterial strain, therefore remaining stable within this population; and/or (2) the ability to transfer horizontally to alternative bacterial hosts via conjugation [9]. Vertical stability can be ensured by the Cobimetinib presence of an addiction system such as toxin-antitoxin systems [10]; by lack of a fitness cost conferred by the plasmid [11]; by action of an active plasmid partitioning system [12]; and/or by providing beneficial attributes such as antibiotic resistance or adhesive properties to the host providing a competitive advantage [13]. Effective horizontal transmission is associated with the frequency with which a plasmid can pass between strains and become established in a host strain after conjugation under different environmental conditions [14]. Previously, we sequenced and characterised an IncK plasmid, denoted pCT, isolated from scouring calves [15–17]. Although it was initially identified in E. coli animal isolate, the ca.

2005, 2008) In and of themselves,

2005, 2008). In and of themselves, however, they do not indicate the metabolic characteristics (e.g., whether autotrophic or heterotrophic) of the individual

fossils analyzed. NMR- and XANES-analyses of particulate see more kerogen Analyses by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of pyrolysates of kerogen isolated from the ~3,490-Ma-old Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia document the presence of aliphatic carbon moieties (CH2 and CH3), aromatic C=C (present in the polyaromatic hydrocarbons of which such kerogens are predominately composed; Schopf et al. 2005), and both C–O and C=O groups (Derenne et al. 2008). The Derenne et al. (2008) study also records the presence in such pyrolysates of an homologous series of long chain (C10–C18) aliphatic hydrocarbons that are characterized

by an odd-over-even carbon number predominance, “a unique characteristic of organics formed biologically since it reflects biosynthesis using Dactolisib purchase addition of C2 units” (Derenne et al. 2008, p. 479). The biological origin of kerogen preserved in the ~3,565-Ma-old Apex chert, also of northwestern Western Australia and the source of the cellular filamentous Archean microbes illustrated Y-27632 manufacturer in Fig. 6, is similarly well documented. Using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), backed by numerous other techniques, DeGregorio et al. (2009) carried out a comparative study of the Apex kerogen and that of the famous and assuredly microfossil-bearing (Barghoorn and Tyler 1965; Cloud 1965) ~1,900-Ma-old Gunflint chert of southern Ontario, Canada. The results show that—rather being abiotic organic matter produced by Fischer–Tropsch-type syntheses, as postulated by Brasier et al. (2002)—the Apex kerogen contains all of Ceramide glucosyltransferase the biogenic elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorous: CHONSP)

as well as functional groups, such as “carboxyl [–COOH] and phenol [Caromatic–OH] peaks” (DeGregorio et al. 2009, p. 632), that are typical of biologically derived kerogen. Based on their exceptionally detailed study, DeGregorio et al. (2009, p. 632) conclude that “Apex carbonaceous matter and Gunflint kerogen are chemically complex… [both containing] similar amounts of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous [in which the presence of phosphorus, in particular] implies a biogenic origin.” The Derenne et al. (2008) and DeGregorio et al. (2009) studies establish, convincingly, the biological origin of the kerogen analyzed: as expressed by Derenne et al. (2008, p. 480), the “data report the occurrence of biological markers in the kerogen embedded in a 3.5 By old chert, [an] observation that supports a scenario according to which life was present on Earth 3.5 By ago”; and DeGregorio et al. (2009, p. 631) conclude that available data imply “that the Apex microbe-like features represent authentic biogenic organic matter”.

Hygrocybe intermedia and H aff citrinovirens from Tennessee are

Hygrocybe intermedia and H. aff. citrinovirens from Tennessee are included based on molecular and morphological data and H. virescens (Hesler & A.H. Smith) Montoya & Bandala is included based on morphological data. Comments Though some spores in H. intermedia are up to 13 μm long, most are less than 10 μm long, the pileipellis is similar to that of the type, and phylogenetic support for the clade is strong so it is included here. Hygrocybe aff. citrinovirens differs from H. intermedia only in having a smooth instead of a fibrillose stipe, but ITS sequences

places it closer to H. citrinovirens. Hygrocybe [subg. see more Hygrocybe ] sect. Chlorophanae (Herink) Arnolds ex Candusso, Hygrophorus. Fungi europ. (Alassio) 6: 464 (1997), = Godfrinia R. Maire em. Herink, sect. Ceraceae Herink, subsect. Chlorophaninae Herink, Acta. Mus. Bot. Sept. Lib. 1: 66 selleck screening library (1959). Type species: Hygrocybe chlorophana (Fr. : Fr.) Wünsche, Die Pilze: 112 (1877) ≡ Agaricus chlorophanus Fr. : Fr., Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 1: 103 (1821). Pileus viscid or glutinous, red, orange or yellow, stipe viscid or not, hymenophoral trama hyphae parallel, exceeding 200 μm in length, with tapered ends and oblique septa; pileipellis an ixocutis or ixotrichodermium. Phylogenetic support Support for the H. chlorophana – H. flavescens clade is strong in the Supermatrix, ITS and LSU analyses (100 % MLBS; Figs. 2 and 3). The 4-gene analyses place H. chlorophana as sister to the clade LDK378 datasheet containing H.


(100 % MLBS and 1.0 BPP). Hygrocybe glutinipes appears as part of a grade near H. chlorophana in the Supermatrix, one of our LSU analyses (Fig. 3) Oxymatrine and ours and Dentinger et al.’s (unpublished) ITS analyses with varying levels of support. Lodge and Ovrebo (2008) found different topologies for placing H. glutinipes with or apart from H. chlorophana, and bootstrap support for the two together of <50 % up to 86 %. Species included Type species: H. chlorophana. Possibly H. flavescens, if distinct from H. chlorophana; placement of H. glutinipes is ambiguous but it is tentatively included. Comments Hygrocybe flavescens (Kauffman) Singer was described from Michigan, and may be a distinct species, especially if it corresponds to the eastern North American clade labeled H. flavescens. In fact, one of the soil clones from Michigan (GU174284) matched the ITS sequences of specimens identified as H. flavescens. Hygrocybe flavescens is said to have a viscid stipe whereas H. chlorophana has a moist or dry stipe, but this character is not always reliable. A hybrid ITS sequence was found in a collection with a viscid stipe from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park despite a 9–12 % divergence in ITS sequences between the two clades (Hughes et al. 2010; in press). Hygrocybe glutinipes may be part of a grade within subg. Hygrocybe near H. chlorophana but is unstable in its position; it could be retained in sect. Chlorophanae based on morphology. Species unplaced in subgen. Hygrocybe.