“Tailored biomaterials with tunable functional


“Tailored biomaterials with tunable functional

properties are desirable for many applications ranging from drug delivery to regenerative medicine. To improve the predictability of biopolymer materials functionality, multiple design parameters need to be considered, along with appropriate models. In this article we review the state of the art of synthesis and processing related to the design of biopolymers, with an emphasis on the integration of bottom-up computational modeling in the design process. AZD6738 molecular weight We consider three prominent examples of well-studied biopolymer materials elastin, silk, and collagen and assess their hierarchical structure, intriguing functional properties and categorize existing approaches to study these materials. We find that an integrated design approach in which both experiments and computational modeling are used has GSK1210151A datasheet rarely been applied for these materials due to difficulties in relating insights gained on different length- and time-scales. In

this context, multiscale engineering offers a powerful means to accelerate the biomaterials design process for the development of tailored materials that suit the needs posed by the various applications. The combined use of experimental and computational tools has a very broad applicability not only in the field of biopolymers, but can be exploited to tailor the properties of other polymers and composite materials in general. (C) 2012 Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the spatial localization of excitons bound to nitrogen (N) pairs in N delta-doped GaAs to make clear origin of bound exciton lines. An extremely high uniformity of the emission wavelength was achieved for the exciton bound to the N pairs because of the uniform strain field in the N delta-doped layer fabricated in the (001) plane in the atomically controlled way. The magneto-photoluminescence spectra in the Faraday configuration showed a mixing of the bright-and dark-exciton components in the exciton fine structure and diamagnetic shift. The spatial distribution of the excitons localized at different N pairs was estimated using the diamagnetic shift coefficient and confirmed by the radiative lifetime of the bright-exciton component. According Tubastatin A manufacturer to the estimated spatial distribution of bound-exciton wave function, it was found that the exciton for the 1.444-eV line is localized stronger than that for the 1.493-eV line. The strong electron confinement for the 1.444-eV line results in the reduction of exciton-phonon interaction. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3654015]“
“Objective High-intensity and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex was carried out in poststroke patients with increased spasticity, and the changes in F-wave parameters in comparison with M-wave parameters induced by rTMS were examined.

Tumour cell growth, cell cycle progression, cell cycle regulating

Tumour cell growth, cell cycle progression, cell cycle regulating proteins and intracellular signalling were then investigated. Short-term application of sunitinib (24hrs) induced cell growth blockade with accumulation in the G2/M phase. RCC cells became resistant to sunitinib after 8weeks, demonstrated by accelerated

cell growth along with enhanced cdk1, cdk2, loss of p27, activation of Akt, Rictor and Raptor. Switching to sorafenib only slightly reduced growth of the sunitinib resistant RCC cells and molecular analysis indicated distinct cross-resistance. In contrast, full response was achieved when the cancer cells were treated with RAD001. p19 and p27 strongly increased, phosphorylated Akt, Rictor and Raptor decreased and the selleck compound tumour cells accumulated in G0/G1. It is concluded that an mTOR-inhibitor for second-line therapy could be the strategy of choice after first-line sunitinib failure.”
“We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection selleck inhibitor imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late

March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.”
“Phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha at serine 305 (ER alpha S305-P) by protein kinase A (PKA) or p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) has experimentally been associated with tamoxifen sensitivity. Here, we investigated the selleck chemical clinical application of this knowledge to predict tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer patients. Using immunohistochemistry, a score including PAK1 and co-expression of PKA and ER

alpha S305-P (PKA/ER alpha S305-P) was developed on a training set consisting of 103 patients treated with tamoxifen for metastatic disease, and validated on 231 patients randomized between adjuvant tamoxifen or no treatment. In the training set, PAK1 levels were associated with tumor progression after tamoxifen (HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.99-2.48), as was co-expression of PKA and ER alpha S305-P (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.52). In the validation set, a significant tamoxifen benefit was found among the 73% patients negative for PAK1 and PKA/ER alpha S305-P (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.87), while others (27%) were likely to have no benefit from tamoxifen (HR 0.88, 95% 0.42-1.82). The test for interaction showed a significant difference in recurrence-free survival between groups defined by PAK1 and PKA/ER alpha S305-P (P = 0.037). Elevated PAK1 and PKA/ER alpha S305-P appeared to influence tamoxifen sensitivity.

Effective measures need to be taken for reducing excessive iodine

Effective measures need to be taken for reducing excessive iodine intake.”
“Molecules of the title compound, C21H16BrNO, are linked through pairs of N-H center dot center dot center dot O intermolecular hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric R-2(2) (10) dimers. One of the C atoms of the cyclohex-2-enone ring is disordered with refined occupancies of 0.61 (2) and 0.39 (2).”

Salter innominate osteotomy (SIO) is widely used to improve the coverage of the femoral head in dysplastic acetabulum, but the geometric change after osteotomy and its effect on the outcome have not been well elucidated.\n\nMethods: Pelvic radiographs of the 90 hips in 86 patients who underwent SIO for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia were reviewed and the movement BI2536 of the distal fragment and the shift of the femoral head after SIO were analyzed. On the basis of the anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis in a supine position taken at 5 weeks after operation, various parameters including an open-wedged angle at the osteotomy site (lateral rotation angle, LRA), lateral displacement of the distal fragment (distance d), and the ratio of the bilateral obturator foramen heights (the ratio of obturator heights, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html ROH), were measured. Improvement in the center-edge angle (CEA) and acetabular

index (AI) after SIO was correlated with the LRA, distance d, and ROH. Horizontal and vertical distances from the pubic symphysis to the center of the femoral head were also measured from preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs and changes in the position of the femoral head

were calculated. For the patients who were followed until skeletal maturity, final radiographic results were also assessed according to the Severin classification.\n\nResults: The average improvement of the CEA and AI after SIO was 19.6 and 13.3 degrees, respectively. The average value of the LRA, distance d, and ROH were 30.2 degrees, 4.07 mm, and 73.0%, respectively. The LRA and distance d positively and the ROH negatively correlated with the improvement of the CEA and AI. The center of the femoral head moved an average of 7.06 mm caudally and Selleckchem JQ1 3.11 mm medially after SIO. Thirty-six hips (40%) in 36 patients were available for follow-up until skeletal maturity. The radiographic outcome was good (Severin I or II) in 33 hips and poor (Severin III) in 3 hips. Preoperative CEA was relatively smaller in a poor group. Greater improvement of the CEA during postoperative follow-up was observed in a good group.\n\nConclusions: Favorable coverage of the femoral head was obtained after SIO by shifting the center of the femoral head caudally and medially as well as rotating the distal fragment anterolaterally. SIO is a very effective procedure in improvement of the dysplastic acetabulum for the hips with round and spherical femoral head.

In the present study, we evaluated EBI3(-/-) mice for their abili

In the present study, we evaluated EBI3(-/-) mice for their ability to mount both AZD8055 mw Th1-mediated and Th2-mediated airway inflammatory responses. The EBI3(-/-) mice sensitized by exposure to inhaled ovalbumin plus a high dose of lipopolysaccharide, which normally results in Th1 responses in wild-type (WT) mice, instead

developed Th2 type airway inflammation, with increased numbers of eosinophils. The EBI3(-/-) mice that were exposed to inhaled ovalbumin with a low dose of lipopolysaccharide, which induces Th2 responses in WT mice, showed a marked enhancement of these responses, with increased airway eosinophils, increased serum IgE levels and increased levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) in culture supernatants JQ-EZ-05 supplier of mediastinal lymph node cells. Increased production of Th2 cytokines was also seen when naive CD4(+) T cells from EBI3(-/-) mice were stimulated in vitro compared with cells from WT mice. These results provide the first evidence that EBI3 may play an inhibitory role in allergic asthma development.”
“Background: Atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD), including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, is the most common cause of death both in the general population and in high-risk

patients; patients with diabetes mellitus JPH203 mw (DM), uremia (UM), primary hyperlipidemia (HP) have increased risks for developing ASVD.\n\nMethods: To identify new biomarkers for early prediction of ASVD, HDL samples from patients with disease (ASVD) and patients with increased risks but no documented ASVD (non-ASVD) were collected for Bis-Tris gradient gel and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) analyses.\n\nResults: Oxidation of ApoC1 was detected specifically in ASVD samples by

MALDI-TOF. On the Bis-Tris gradient gel, non-ASVD ApoA1 was displayed into 2 distinct bands A and B. An additional C band of ApoA1 appeared exclusively in ASVD patients. The extraordinary C band of ApoA1 was characterized by high levels of glycation and oxidation. MALDI-TOF analyses of ApoA1 peptides after trypsin digestion confirmed higher levels of glycation and oxidation levels in the ASVD than non-ASVD samples.\n\nConclusions: Gel identification of the highly-glycated and oxidized C band of ApoA1 and MALDI-TOF detection of oxidized ApoC1 in HDL may provide a new approach for early ASVD diagnosis. (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Purpose: We assessed the safety of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that had progressed following first-line sorafenib.


decision support is based on WHO guidelines and desig


decision support is based on WHO guidelines and designed using three principles: (1) Guidance through routine actions in maternal and perinatal care, (2) integration of clinical data to detect situations of concern by algorithms, and (3) electronic tracking of peri-and postnatal activities. In addition, the tool facilitates patient management and is a source of training material. The implementation of the software, which is embedded in a set of interventions comprising the QUALMAT study, is subject to various research projects assessing and quantifying the impact of the CDSS on quality of care, the motivation of health care staff (users) and its health economic aspects. The software will also be assessed for its usability and acceptance, as well as for its influence on workflows in the rural setting of primary health care in the three countries involved.\n\nConclusion: AG-881 solubility dmso GSK2879552 solubility dmso The development and implementation of a CDSS in rural primary health care centres presents challenges, which may be overcome with careful planning and involvement of future users at an early stage. A tailored software with stable functionality should offer perspectives to improve maternal care in resource-poor settings.”
“Background. Achieving effective local control and obtaining optimal functional outcomes are now both needed in

the surgical management for rectal cancer.\n\nObjectives. The aim of this study was to assess early functional results after low anterior resection performed with an ultrasound scalpel.\n\nMaterial and Methods. Nineteen consecutive rectal cancer patients surgically treated during the years 2004-2008 with low anterior resection with sharp total mesorectal excision were studied. Dissection was performed with an ultrasound scalpel instead of electrocautery. The frequency of axial vibration and the extension of longitudinal vibration were 55.5 kHz and 75 mu m, respectively. Special effort was made to identify and preserve autonomic nerves. Postoperative complications

and functional results were analyzed.\n\nResults. Surgery was completed with no intraoperative complications. The mean operating time www.selleckchem.com/products/su5402.html was 150.20 +/- 27.09 min. In each case, resection and anastomosis ( straight, double-stapled) were done with ease. There was no postoperative mortality. Blood transfusion was not required. Neither anastomotic leakage nor abdominal infectious complications were noticed. Delayed wound healing and prolonged bowel paralysis occurred in two patients (13%) with diabetes and chronic obturative pulmonary disease, respectively. Urinary bladder disturbance developed in one female patient (7%) as stress incontinence. This dysfunction was transient, with symptoms being significantly reduced during the six postoperative months.\n\nConclusions.

A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, an

A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.”
“Context: In the electrically ACY-241 inhibitor induced cramp model, the tibial nerve is stimulated at an initial frequency of 4 Hz with increases in 2-Hz increments until the flexor

hallucis brevis cramps. Poziotinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor The frequency at which cramping occurs (ie, threshold frequency [TF]) can vary considerably. A potential limitation is that multiple subthreshold stimulations before TF might induce

fatigue, which is operationally defined as a decrease in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force, thereby biasing TF.\n\nObjective: To determine if TF is similar when initially stimulated at 4 Hz or 14 Hz and if MVIC force is different among stimulation frequencies or over time (precramp, 1 minute postcramp, and 5 minutes postcramp).\n\nDesign: Crossover study.\n\nSetting: Laboratory.\n\nPatients or Other Participants: Twenty participants (13 males: age = 20.6 +/- 2.9 years, height = 184.4 +/- 5.7 cm, mass = 76.3 +/- 7.1 kg; 7 females: age = 20.4 +/- 3.5 years, height = 166.6 +/- 6.0 cm, mass = 62.4 +/- 10.0 kg) who were prone to cramps.\n\nIntervention(s): Participants Selleck JQ1 performed 20 practice MVICs. After a 5-minute rest, three 2-second MVICs were recorded and averaged for the precramp measurement. Participants were stimulated at either 4 Hz or 14 Hz, and the frequency

was increased in 2-Hz increments from each initial frequency until cramp. The MVIC force was reevaluated at 1 minute and 5 minutes postcramp.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): The TF and MVIC force.\n\nResults: Initial stimulation frequency did not affect TF (4 Hz = 16.2 +/- 3.8 Hz, 14 Hz = 17.1 +/- 5.0 Hz; t(19)=1.2, P = .24). Two participants had inaccurate TFs when initially stimulated at 14 Hz; they cramped at 10 and 12 Hz in the 4-Hz condition. The MVIC force did not differ between initial frequencies (F-1,F-19 = 0.9, P = .36) but did differ over time (F-2,F-38 = 5.1, P = .01). Force was lower at 1 minute postcramp (25.1 +/- 10.1 N) than at precramp (28.7 +/- 7.8 N; P < .05) but returned to baseline at 5 minutes postcramp (26.7 +/- 8.9 N; P > .05).\n\nConclusions: The preferred initial stimulation frequency might be 4 Hz because it did not alter or overestimate TF. The MVIC force was lower at 1 minute postcramp, suggesting the induced cramp rather than the varying electrical frequencies affected force. A 1- to 5-minute rest should be provided postcramp induction if multiple cramps are induced.

For example, excess oestrogen or cortisol exposure in the womb or

For example, excess oestrogen or cortisol exposure in the womb or during early life resulted in an increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life. This review focuses on the effects of environmental chemicals, such Barasertib cost as the model obesogen, tributyltin (TBT), on the development of obesity. We discuss evidence linking the obesogenic effects of TBT with its ability to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and stimulate adipogenesis. We also discuss how TBT and other environmental obesogens may lead to epigenetic changes that predispose exposed individuals to subsequent

weight gain and obesity. This suggests that humans, who have been exposed to obesogenic chemicals during

sensitive windows of development, might be pre-programmed to store increased amounts of fat, resulting in a lifelong struggle to maintain a healthy weight and exacerbating the deleterious effects of poor diet and inadequate exercise.”
“Background:\n\nSqualor is an epiphenomenon associated with a range of medical and psychiatric conditions. People living in squalor are not well described in the literature, and prior work has indicated that up to 50% do not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Squalor appears to be linked with neuropsychological deficits suggestive of the presence of impaired executive function. We present a case series of people living in squalor that examines their neuropsychological assessment see more and diagnosis.\n\nMethods:\n\nClinicians from local health networks were invited to submit neuropsychological reports of patients living

in squalor. These selected reports were screened to ensure the presence of squalor and a comprehensive examination of a set of core neuropsychological domains. Assessments were included if basic attention, visuospatial reasoning, information processing speed, memory check details function, and executive function were assessed.\n\nResults:\n\nSixty-nine neuropsychological reports were included. Sixty-eight per cent of the group underwent neuropsychological assessments during an inpatient admission. For participants where it was available (52/69), the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 25.29 (SD = 3.96). Neuropsychological assessment showed a range of cognitive impairment with nearly all the participants (92.75%) found to have frontal executive dysfunction. One person had an unimpaired neuropsychological assessment. Results indicated that dorsolateral prefrontal rather than orbitofrontal functions were more likely to be impaired. Vascular etiology was the most common cause implicated by neuropsychologists.\n\nConclusions:\n\nFrontal executive dysfunction was a prominent finding in the neuropsychological profiles of our sample of squalor patients, regardless of their underlying medical or psychiatric diagnoses.

“Objective: The aim of this

“Objective: The aim of this https://www.selleckchem.com/products/R788(Fostamatinib-disodium).html study was to assess awareness and knowledge regarding glaucoma among people attending free eye clinic in eastern region of Nepal. Methods: All the consecutive patients aged 35 years or older, who presented to

the free eye clinic, were invited to participate in this cross-sectional survey conducted in June-July 2010. All the participants were residents of Morang district of eastern Nepal. Data on demographics and awareness of glaucoma were collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire. Participants who have heard about glaucoma were considered as aware and those giving an agreeable definition were considered as having knowledge on glaucoma. Results: A total of 348 subjects participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 48.3 +/- 12.0 years. The majority of them were females, residents of rural areas, and literates. Among the total participants, 211 (60.6%) were aware of the term glaucoma. Only 19 (5.5%) of the total participants had some knowledge of glaucoma. The awareness on glaucoma was significantly associated with higher level of education, family history of glaucoma, and previous history of eye check up.

Conclusions: Knowledge of glaucoma in this population is very low. No particular groups of people are aware of glaucoma in this part of the country. Health education should be broadly targeted at the population to educate GNS-1480 people about the risk factors of glaucoma and thereby prevent needless blindness.”
“The proprioceptive sensitivity of healthy volunteers and convalescents after acute cerebrovascular episodes was studied by a new neurophysiological method for registration Screening Library nmr of kinesthetic evoked potentials emerging in response to passive 50(o) bending of the hand in the wrist joint with the angular acceleration of 350 rad/sec(2). Kinesthetic evoked potentials

were recorded above the somatosensory cortex projection areas in the hemispheres contra- and ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. The patients exhibited significantly longer latencies and lesser amplitudes of the early components of response in the involved hemisphere in comparison with normal subjects. The method for registration of the kinesthetic evoked potentials allows a more detailed study of the mechanisms of kinesthetic sensitivity in health and in organic involvement of the brain.”
“The selectivity of amikacin in macrophages in vitro and its biodistribution in peritoneal macrophages and other tissues were studied in rats using carrier erythrocytes. Amikacin-loaded erythrocytes were prepared using a hypotonic dialysis method. The in vitro uptake of amikacin by peritoneal macrophages was studied using cell monolayers. The in vivo uptake by macrophages and the tissue distribution of amikacin were studied in two groups of rats that received either amikacin in saline solution, or amikacin-loaded erythrocytes.

To quantify heterogeneities in the adhesion energies, a heterogen

To quantify heterogeneities in the adhesion energies, a heterogeneity index (HI) was defined based on quantified standard errors of mean.

At the cell level, spatial variations in the adhesion energies were not observed. For the strain, species, and genus levels, the HI increased with increased adhesion energies. At the species level, the HI increased with strain virulence.”
“A minimal-model framework is that growth hormone (GH) secretion is controlled by an ensemble of interlinked peptides, namely, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), and ghrelin. Clinical studies, VX-770 nmr laboratory experiments, rare sporadic mutations, targeted gene silencing, and biomathematical models establish that at least three signals regulate GH secretion. A clarion implication of the concept of integrative control is that no one peptidic effector operates find more alone or can be adequately studied alone. A major unanswered question is how pathophysiology disrupts the core regulatory

ensemble, thereby forcing relative GH and IGF-1 deficiency or excess. However, salient technical hurdles exist, namely, the lack of reliable experimental strategies and the paucity of validated analytical tools to distinguish the interlinked roles of GHRH, SS, and ghrelin. To address these significant obstacles requires administering peptide secretagogues in distinct combinations akin to the classical insulin/glucose clamp and implementing an analytical formalism to parse the interactive roles of GHRH, SS, and ghrelin objectively.”
“Intrathecal (it.) injection of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK), co-administered with peptidase inhibitors, Dorsomorphin mw phosphoramidon (an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor), and bestatin (a general aminopeptidase inhibitor), produced behaviors consisting

of the biting and/or licking of the hindpaw and the tail along with hindlimb scratching directed toward the flank, which peaked at 10-15 min after an injection. This characteristic behavior was not observed in mice treated with it. Leu-ENK alone. We also investigated the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in spinal processing of nociception induced by it. coadministration of Leu-ENK with phospharamidon and bestatin. Western blot analysis of phospho-ERK (pERK) showed a significant increase of pERK2 in the lumbar spinal cord in response to it. Leu-ENK co-injected with peptidase inhibitors. The MAP kinase-ERK inhibitor, U0126 dose-dependently attenuated the nociceptive behavior and spinal ERK activation to it. Leu-ENK co-injected with peptidase inhibitors. Furthermore, the nociceptive behavior and spinal ERK activation evoked by it.

Summary Background Data: Surgery is the most effective treatm

\n\nSummary Background Data: Surgery is the most effective treatment for melanoma involving lymph nodes (LN). QA for RLND procedures, including adequacy of surgery and histopathology. is not well developed. The number of LN removed is one auditable measurement, known as a reliable predictor of surgical quality in other tumors.\n\nMethods: Data were retrieved from the SMU prospective database buy Torin 2 for patients treated from 1993 to 2006. There were 2039

RLND by SMU surgeons and 324 by non-SMU surgeons. The axilla, groin, cervical dissections of <= 3 levels (CD <= 3) and cervical dissections >= 4 levels (CD >= 4) were assessed.\n\nResults: At axillary dissection the mean number of LN resected by SMU surgeons was 21.9 (median 21; range 1-83; 90% of cases >= 10 LN), groin dissection mean 14.5 LN (median 13; range 1-54; 90% of PFTα concentration cases >= 7 LN), CD <= 3 dissection mean 19.5 LN (median 18.5 range 1-52; 90% of cases >= 6 LN) and CD >= 4 dissection mean 38.9 LN (median 36; range 5-103; 90% of cases >= 20 LN). SMU surgeons retrieved significantly more LN than non-SMU surgeons for axillary and groin dissections (P < 0.0005).\n\nConclusions: These data benchmark performance for melanoma RLND. Cases with a low node count (below

the 90(th) percentile) should be assessed critically. Standard RLND operations should have a reproducible mean and predictable distribution of LN retrieved.”
“Work in personal protective equipment (PPE) impairs thermoregulation causing cardiovascular stress, increased core body temperature, and hypohydration. We examined the effect of pretreating first responders performing treadmill exercise in PPE with this website an infusion of normal saline on physiological

and perceptual strain. Ten (eight males, two females) euhydrated subjects performed treadmill exercise on two occasions wearing a chemical resistant coverall, air purifying respirator, butyl gloves, and heavy boots. During the hyperhydration session, normal saline was rapidly infused through an arm vein prior to donning PPE. Exercise duration and maximum core temperature did not differ between euhydrated and hyperhydrated conditions. Perceptual strain index (PeSI) was higher than physiological strain index (PhSI) in the euhydrated condition (P = 0.002) but neither index differed between the control and experimental conditions. Intravenous hyperhydration did not reduce physiological stress, increase exercise, or influence perceptual strain time when compared to the euhydrated condition in moderately fit individuals.”
“Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a human tumor suppressor that inhibits cellular transformation by regulating the activity of several signaling proteins critical for malignant cell behavior.