Rather, degree of diastasis is significantly associated with pelvic organ prolapse.”
study examined the hypothesis that depressed adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment will show greater cortisol reactivity to psychological stress challenge than those without, and this relation will be moderated by level of depression severity. Seventy-one adolescents were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, immediately before the challenge, after the challenge, and during an extended recovery period. Childhood maltreatment was assessed with a rigorous contextual interview and rating system. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment produced higher and more prolonged levels of cortisol in response to the challenge than did adolescents with no maltreatment, but only among those with a mild/moderate level of depression severity. Those with moderate/severe depression exhibited LY3039478 manufacturer Vadimezan purchase a blunted cortisol response regardless of child maltreatment history. These findings indicate that depression is a heterogeneous syndrome, and that both depression severity and child maltreatment history should be considered
in studies examining biological stress reactivity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Here, we have translated from the rat to the non-human primate a unilateral lumbosacral injury as a model for cauda equina injury. In this morphological study, we have investigated retrograde effects of a unilateral L6-S2 ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury as well as the long-term effects of Wallerian degeneration on avulsed ventral roots at 6-10 months post-operatively in four adult male rhesus monkeys. Immunohistochemistry for choline acetyl transferase and glial fibrillary acidic protein demonstrated a significant loss of the majority of the axotomized motoneurons in the affected L6-S2 segments and signs of an associated astrocytic glial response within the ventral horn of the L6 and S1 spinal cord segments. Quantitative analysis of the avulsed ventral roots showed that they exhibited normal size and were populated by a why normal number of myelinated axons.
However, the myelinated axons in the avulsed ventral roots were markedly smaller in caliber compared to the fibers of the intact contralateral ventral roots, which served as controls. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the presence of small myelinated axons and a population of unmyelinated axons within the avulsed roots. In addition, collagen fibers were readily identified within the endoneurium of the avulsed roots. In summary, a lumbosacral VRA injury resulted in retrograde motoneuron loss and astrocytic glial activation in the ventral horn. Surprisingly, the Wallerian degeneration of motor axons in the avulsed ventral roots was followed by a repopulation of the avulsed roots by small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.