Rather, degree of diastasis is significantly associated with pelv

Rather, degree of diastasis is significantly associated with pelvic organ prolapse.”

study examined the hypothesis that depressed adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment will show greater cortisol reactivity to psychological stress challenge than those without, and this relation will be moderated by level of depression severity. Seventy-one adolescents were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, immediately before the challenge, after the challenge, and during an extended recovery period. Childhood maltreatment was assessed with a rigorous contextual interview and rating system. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment produced higher and more prolonged levels of cortisol in response to the challenge than did adolescents with no maltreatment, but only among those with a mild/moderate level of depression severity. Those with moderate/severe depression exhibited LY3039478 manufacturer Vadimezan purchase a blunted cortisol response regardless of child maltreatment history. These findings indicate that depression is a heterogeneous syndrome, and that both depression severity and child maltreatment history should be considered

in studies examining biological stress reactivity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Here, we have translated from the rat to the non-human primate a unilateral lumbosacral injury as a model for cauda equina injury. In this morphological study, we have investigated retrograde effects of a unilateral L6-S2 ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury as well as the long-term effects of Wallerian degeneration on avulsed ventral roots at 6-10 months post-operatively in four adult male rhesus monkeys. Immunohistochemistry for choline acetyl transferase and glial fibrillary acidic protein demonstrated a significant loss of the majority of the axotomized motoneurons in the affected L6-S2 segments and signs of an associated astrocytic glial response within the ventral horn of the L6 and S1 spinal cord segments. Quantitative analysis of the avulsed ventral roots showed that they exhibited normal size and were populated by a why normal number of myelinated axons.

However, the myelinated axons in the avulsed ventral roots were markedly smaller in caliber compared to the fibers of the intact contralateral ventral roots, which served as controls. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the presence of small myelinated axons and a population of unmyelinated axons within the avulsed roots. In addition, collagen fibers were readily identified within the endoneurium of the avulsed roots. In summary, a lumbosacral VRA injury resulted in retrograde motoneuron loss and astrocytic glial activation in the ventral horn. Surprisingly, the Wallerian degeneration of motor axons in the avulsed ventral roots was followed by a repopulation of the avulsed roots by small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.

SnCl(2) is known to have toxic effects on the

SnCl(2) is known to have toxic effects on the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bindarit.html nervous system which can be related to alterations of intracellular calcium homeostasis ([Ca(2+)](i)). In this study the whole cell patch clamp technique is used on dorsal root ganglion neurons of 3-week-old “”Wistar”" rats to evaluate the effects of SnCl(2) on voltage-activated calcium channel currents (I(Ca(v))).

I(Ca(v)) were reduced concentration-dependently by SnCl(2) (1-50 mu M). 1 mu M SnCl(2) reduced I(Ca(v)) by 8.1 +/- 4.5% (peak current) and 19.2 +/- 8.9% (sustained current), whereas 50 mu M inhibited I(Ca(v)) by 50.6 +/- 4.3% (peak current) and 55.6 +/- 11.3% (sustained current). Sustained currents

were slightly but not significantly more reduced than peak currents. The effect appeared not to be reversible. The threshold concentration was below 1 mu M.

The current-voltage relation did not shift which is an indication that different calcium channel subtypes were equally affected. There was a slight but not significant shift of the activation/inactivation curves

towards the depolarizing direction.

We conclude that voltage-gated calcium channels are affected by Sn(2+) similarly to other divalent metal cations Selleckchem Volasertib (e.g. Pb(2+) or Zn(2+)).

The reduction of I(Ca(v)) could be related to the neurotoxic effects of SnCl(2). (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma

(MM) is caused by enhanced osteoclast (OCL) activation and inhibition of osteoblast function. Lenalidomide and bortezomib have shown promising response rates in relapsed and newly diagnosed MM, and bortezomib has recently been reported to inhibit OCLs. We here investigated the effect of lenalidomide on OCL Dichloromethane dehalogenase formation and osteoclastogenesis in comparison with bortezomib. Both drugs decreased alpha Vb3-integrin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells and bone resorption on dentin disks. In addition, both agents decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) secretion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) derived from MM patients. We identified PU.1 and pERK as major targets of lenalidomide, and nuclear factor of activated T cells of bortezomib, resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, downregulation of cathepsin K, essential for resorption of the bone collagen matrix, was observed. We demonstrated a significant decrease of growth and survival factors including macrophage inflammatory protein-alpha, B-cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand. Importantly, in serum from MM patients treated with lenalidomide, the essential bone-remodeling factor RANKL, as well as the RANKL/OPG ratio, were significantly reduced, whereas osteoprotegerin (OPG) was increased.

“Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL84 is a multifunctional pr

“Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL84 is a multifunctional protein that is the proposed Cyclopamine mw initiator for lytic viral DNA synthesis. Recently it was shown

that UL84 displays nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The role of shuttling in lytic DNA replication and virus growth is unknown. We now show that expression of the nonshuttling UL84 mutant failed to complement oriLyt-dependent DNA replication in the transient assay under conditions where core replication and ancillary proteins were expressed under the control of their native promoters. However, constitutive expression of the core replication proteins, along with the nonshuttling UL84 mutant, resulted in efficient oriLyt amplification, suggesting that shuttling may contribute to the activity of one of the auxiliary replication proteins. A recombinant HCMV bacterial artificial chromosome plasmid (BACmid) expressing the nonshuttling UL84 mutant (NS84 BAC) was defective for production of infectious virus. Quantitative PCR showed that NS84 BAC had decreased accumulation of viral DNA

in both cellular and supernatant samples. Analysis of the accumulation click here of select viral mRNAs showed no difference in total cellular mRNA accumulation for IE2, IRS1, TRS1, UL102, UL105, and UL75 in cells transfected with the NS84 BAC. However, examination of cytoplasmic RNA and subcellular localization of IRS1 revealed a decrease in IRS1 mRNA accumulation and displaced protein localization, Thiamine-diphosphate kinase strongly suggesting that UL84 facilitated the localization of IRS1 mRNA to the cytoplasm. RNA pulldown assays showed that UL84 interacted with IRS1 mRNA. These results indicate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is essential for virus growth and strongly suggest that UL84 is responsible for localization of at least one virus-encoded transcript, IRS1 mRNA.”
“Acute stroke multimodal CT imaging (MMCT: non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion (CTP)) may show normal results despite persistent clinical stroke. We prospectively

evaluated the sensitivity/specificity of MMCT infarct detection and the clinical outcome in patients with normal MMCT findings.

From April 2007 to April 2008, all patients with acute hemispheric stroke within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent complete MMCT and MRI follow-up imaging were included. MMCT analysis included occlusion type, early infarct hypodensities (EIH), mean transit time (MTT), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps according to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Clinical assessment included symptom onset to CT scan (a parts per thousand currency sign3 h/> 3 h), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score (admission/discharge), and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset.

One hundred seven were included (mean age, 68.

) We will first summarize the experimental

results and d

). We will first summarize the experimental

results and discuss some potential mechanisms that could explain our results. We will then present our ‘new’ version of the cholinergic hypothesis and how it relates to the field of AD research today. Finally we will discuss some of the implications for treatment that arise from this model and present directions for future study. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The relevance of iatrogenic left coronary artery fistulas complicating surgical myectomy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not known. We prospectively defined the echocardiographic features, prevalence, check details and clinical significance of left coronary artery fistulas in 40 consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing extended septal myectomy.

Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed preoperatively and 1 and 6 months after surgical intervention. Diagnosis of left coronary selleck chemicals llc artery fistulas required evidence of diastolic flow draining from the left ventricular

wall into the left ventricular cavity according to prespecified criteria.

Results: Left coronary artery fistulas were detected in 9 (23%) of the 40 study patients as a single occurrence in all except 1 patient, who had multiple fistulas. At 6 months, left coronary artery fistulas could still be detected in only 2 of the 9 patients. Of these, 1 patient remained asymptomatic but continued to show left

coronary artery fistula persistence at 37 months postoperatively. The other, a woman with prior alcohol septal ablation, had progressive severe symptoms that required percutaneous closure of the fistula with a covered stent after angiographic identification of a large first septal branch fistula associated with distal left anterior descending coronary artery steal.

Conclusions: In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left coronary artery fistulas are common in the early period after surgical myectomy, although Nutlin-3 price their echocardiographic prevalence is dependent on operator awareness. Most left coronary artery fistulas heal spontaneously. Occasionally, however, fistulas can persist and cause symptoms requiring therapeutic intervention. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;140:1046-52)”
“The ‘action observation network’ (AON), which is thought to translate observed actions into motor codes required for their execution, is biologically tuned: it responds more to observation of human, than non-human, movement. This biological specificity has been taken to support the hypothesis that the AON underlies various social functions, such as theory of mind and action understanding, and that, when it is active during observation of non-human agents like humanoid robots, it is a sign of ascription of human mental states to these agents.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“In a study of the effects of normal and pathological aging on semantic-related brain activity, 29 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 19 controls subjects (10 young and 9 older controls) performed a version of the Pyramids

and Palm Trees Test that had been adapted for use during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young and older controls activated the left inferior and middle frontal gyri, precuneus; and superior parietal lobule. Right frontal and left temporal cortices were activated only in the young. The AD group activated only the left prefrontal and cingulate cortex. Separate analyses of high- and low-performing AD subgroups showed a similar pattern of activation in the left frontal lobe, although activiation click here was more widespread in low performers. High performers significantly deactivated anterior midline frontal structures, however, while low performers did not. When the older

adult and AD groups were combined, there was a significant positive correlation between left frontal and parietal activation and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (covarying for age), suggesting a disease effect. A significant negative correlation between activation in the left temporal cortex and age (covarying for MMSE score) reflected a possible age effect. These differential effects suggest that semantic activation paradigms might aid diagnosis in

those cases for whom conventional assessments lack the necessary sensitivity to detect subtle changes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Danusertib nmr All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Discharge patterns, including rates of prolonged length of stay and transfer to a facility, were evaluated in the context of radical cystectomy.

Materials and Methods: Thalidomide Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample we focused on radical cystectomy performed between 1998 and 2007. Multivariable logistic regression analyses predicting the likelihood of prolonged length of stay or transfer to a facility were performed.

Results: Overall 11,876 eligible radical cystectomy cases were identified. The rates of prolonged length of stay decreased from 59% in the early period (1998 to 2001) to 50% in the late period (2005 to 2007, p < 0.001) while the rates of transfer to a facility remained stable (14%). On multivariable analyses adjusted for clustering, prolonged length of stay was more frequently recorded in patients from low annual caseload hospitals (OR 1.42, p < 0.001), as well as in Medicaid and Medicare patients (OR 1.66 and 1.17, respectively, all p < 0.01). Similarly rates of transfer to a facility were significantly higher for patients from low annual caseload hospitals (OR 1.81, p < 0.001) and for those with Medicaid or Medicare (OR 2.18 and 1.54, respectively, all p < 0.

Published by Elsevier Inc “
“Background Colorectal cancer is

Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and has a high mortality rate. We tested the hypothesis that only one flexible sigmoidoscopy screening between 55 and 64 years of age can substantially reduce colorectal cancer incidence

and mortality.

Methods This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 UK centres. 170 432 eligible men and women, who had indicated on a previous questionnaire that they would accept an invitation for screening, were randomly allocated to the intervention group (offered flexible sigmoidoscopy screening) or the control group (not contacted). Randomisation by sequential number generation was done centrally in blocks of 12, with stratification by trial centre, general practice, and household type. The primary outcomes were the incidence of colorectal cancer, including prevalent cases detected at screening, and mortality

from 4-Hydroxytamoxifen datasheet colorectal cancer. Analyses were intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered, number ISRCTN28352761.

Findings 113 195 people were assigned to the control group and 57 237 to the intervention group, of whom 112 939 and 57099, respectively, were included in the final analyses. 40 674 (71%) people underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy. During screening and median follow-up of 11.2 years (IQR 10.7-11.9), 2524 participants selleck screening library were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (1818 in control group vs 706 in intervention group) and 20 543 died (13 768 vs 6775; 727 certified from colorectal cancer [538 vs 189]). In intention-to-treat analyses, colorectal cancer incidence in the intervention group was reduced by 23% (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0 70-0.84) and mortality by 31% (0.69, 0.59-0.82). In perprotocol analyses, adjusting for self-selection bias in

the intervention group, incidence of colorectal cancer in people attending screening was reduced by 33% (0.67, 0.60-0.76) and mortality by 43% (0.57, 0.45-0.72). Incidence of distal colorectal cancer (rectum and sigmoid colon) was reduced by 50% (0.50, 0.42-0.59; Florfenicol secondary outcome). The numbers needed to be screened to prevent one colorectal cancer diagnosis or death, by the end of the study period, were 191 (95% CI 145-277) and 489 (343-852), respectively.

Interpretation Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a safe and practical test and, when offered only once between ages 55 and 64 years, confers a substantial and longlasting benefit.”
“Peroxynitrite is a reactive nitrogen species that can mediate protein tyrosine nitration, inactivating many proteins. We show that yeast mitochondria! peroxiredoxin (Prx1p), which belongs to the group 1-Cys-PTX, has thioredoxin-dependent peroxynitrite reductase activity. This activity was characterised in vitro with the recombinant mitochondrial Prx1p, the thioredoxin reductase Trr2p and the thioredoxin Trx3p, using a generator of peroxynitrite (SIN-1).

“Microalgal production technologies are seen as increasing

“Microalgal production technologies are seen as increasingly attractive for bioenergy production to improve fuel security and reduce CO2

emissions. Photosynthetically derived fuels are a renewable, potentially carbon-neutral and scalable alternative reserve. Microalgae have particular promise because they can be produced on non-arable land and utilize saline and wastewater streams. Furthermore, emerging microalgal technologies can be used to produce a range of products such as biofuels, protein-rich animal feeds, chemical feedstocks (e.g. bio-plastic precursors) and higher-value products. This review focuses on the selection, breeding and engineering of microalgae for improved biomass and biofuel conversion efficiencies.”
“Blind people rely much more on voices compared to sighted individuals when identifying other people. Previous selleck compound research has suggested a faster processing of auditory input in blind individuals than sighted controls Selleckchem EPZ015938 and an enhanced activation of temporal cortical regions during voice processing. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to single out the sub-processes of auditory person identification

that change and allow for superior voice processing after congenital blindness. A priming paradigm was employed in which two successive voices (S1 and S2) of either the same (50% of the trials) or different actors were presented. Congenitally blind and matched sighted participants made an old-young decision on the S2. During the pre-experimental familiarization with the stimuli, congenitally blind individuals showed faster learning rates than sighted controls. Reaction times were shorter in person-congruent trials than in person-incongruent trials in

both groups. ERPs to S2 stimuli in person-incongruent as compared to person-congruent trials were significantly enhanced Vitamin B12 at early processing stages (100-160 ms) in congenitally blind participants only. A later negative ERP effect ( > 200 ms) was found in both groups. The scalp topographies of the experimental effects were characterized by a central and parietal distribution in the sighted but a more posterior distribution in the congenitally blind. These results provide evidence for an improvement of early voice processing stages and a reorganization of the person identification system as a neural correlate of compensatory behavioral improvements following congenital blindness. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous reports have shown that cholesterol depletion of the membrane envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) impairs viral infection of target cells. A potential function of this lipid in later steps of the viral life cycle remained controversial, with secretion of virions and subviral particles (SVP) being either inhibited or not affected, depending on the experimental approach employed to decrease the intracellular cholesterol level.

MeHg-induced changes in astrocytic [(3)H]-glutamine uptake were a

MeHg-induced changes in astrocytic [(3)H]-glutamine uptake were assessed along with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)), using the potentiometric dye tetramethylrhodamine

ethyl ester (TMRE). Western blot analysis was used to detect MeHg-induced ERK (extracellular-signal related kinase) phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. MeHg treatment significantly decreased (p < 0.05) astrocytic [(3)H]-glutamine uptake at all time points Selleck AZD0530 and concentrations. Ebselen fully reversed MeHg’s (1 mu M) effect on [(3)H]-glutamine uptake at 1 min. At higher MeHg concentrations, ebselen partially reversed the MeHg-induced astrocytic inhibition of [(3)H]-glutamine uptake [at 1 min (5 and 10 mu M)

(p < 0.05); 5 min (1, 5 and 10 mu M) (p < 0.05)]. MeHg treatment (1 h) significantly (p < 0.05) dissipated the Delta Psi(m) in astrocytes as evidenced by a decrease Ganetespib in mitochondrial TMRE fluorescence. Ebselen fully reversed the effect of 1 mu M MeHg treatment for 1 h on astrocytic Delta Psi(m) and partially reversed the effect of 5 and 10 mu M MeHg treatments for 1 h on In addition, ebselen inhibited MeHg-induced phosphorylation of ERK (p < 0.05) and blocked MeHg-induced activation of caspase-3 (p < 0.05-0.01). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that MeHg exerts its toxic effects via oxidative stress and that the phosphorylation of ERK and the dissipation of the astrocytic mitochondrial membrane potential are involved in MeHg toxicity. In addition, the protective effects elicited by ebselen reinforce the idea that organic selenocompounds represent promising strategies to counteract MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

real-time polymerase chain Bortezomib reaction (PCR) is considered to be a suitable tool for nucleic acid quantitation because it is accurate, rapid and reliable. The reference protocol for quantitation of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas is based on a Sybr (R) Green real-time PCR developed by the IFREMER laboratory. The Frank Duncombe Departmental Laboratory has developed an alternative protocol based on TaqMan (R) chemistry (alternative technique). The quantitation limits were 1000 and 18 UG/mg of tissues for the reference method and alternative protocols, respectively, and the latter protocol has a detection limit of 6 UG/mg of tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the two protocols using DNA samples obtained from 210 spat. The kappa index (0.41) indicated a moderate concordance between the protocols, according to the measures of Landis and Koch. All samples that were positive by the reference protocol were also positive by the alternative protocol. Of the 76 samples that were negative by the reference protocol, 49 were positives by the alternative protocol.

In this study, both test beverages resulted in higher CHOTOT comp

In this study, both test beverages resulted in higher CHOTOT compared with P during exercise undertaken at 50% Wmax. As steady state exercise intensity was comparable across trials (for oxygen uptake, power output and perceived exertion), the use of P resulted in a higher rate of CHOENDO and FATTOT, which was expected. The inclusion of the two test beverages resulted in lower CHOENDO, potentially decreasing https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD8931.html reliance on hepatic glucose utilisation, and permitting glycogen sparing, particularly in type I SC79 cost muscle fibres, during continuous aerobic exercise. Indeed, as the use of carbohydrate beverages has been shown to spare glycogen early

into exercise [39], this may provide a subtle benefit late into exercise if CHOTOT is enhanced. Whilst CHO sparing from endogenous sources was apparent with both test beverages across all time points, it was specifically noted that CHOTOT was 16.1% greater with MD + F compared to MD in the final 30 minutes of the oxidation trial. This differs from previous research utilising similar dosing strategies of fructose: maltodextrin [11], which is surprising considering CHOEXO rates during the same time frame were significantly increased and comparable to

values observed in the current study. As there was a progressive increase in CHOEXO with MD + F throughout the oxidation trial (with mean CHOEXO of 1.27 g.min-1 being significantly greater than MD), this implies that intestinal saturation was not a limiting factor at this dosage, as supported elsewhere [5, 11]. During the MD trial, CHOEXO was maintained from 90 minutes indicating potential saturation AICAR ic50 of the SGLT1 transporter mechanism. As there was no significant difference in either average CHOEXO or carbohydrate oxidation efficiency between the test beverages prior to this, the use of combined sugar beverages may be more applicable for events lasting longer than 90 minutes, supporting current recommendations [4]. It should also be noted that participants in this study undertook the oxidation trial following an overnight fast. Whilst this is not normal practice isothipendyl for trained

athletes competing, it has been shown that the influence of low dietary carbohydrate availability prior to sustained exercise has little impact on accumulated CHOEXO and steady state performance [40] in the presence of CHO beverages. However, more prolonged states of starvation have been shown to reduce CHOEXO[41]. In the current study, participants maintained their habitual diet which was unlikely to significantly impact on CHOEXO. Peak CHOEXO for MD + F compared well with previous research [5, 8, 11], with values reaching 1.45 ± 0.09 g.min-1, 35.5% greater than MD, by the end of the oxidation trial. When lower ingestion rates of 0.8 g.min-1 have been employed to replicate practices employed by athletes (48 g.hr-1), peak CHOEXO were not significantly different between glucose + fructose versus glucose only beverages (0.56 v 0.58 g.min-1 respectively, [9]).

The recursive tiling of offspring dodecagons packed with random e

The recursive tiling of offspring dodecagons packed with random ensembles of squares and triangles in dilated parent cells forms the lattice. Additionally, the PQC rod dimension and pattern pitch were approximately 515 and 750 nm in this study according to [22] and roughly simulate calculation. KU-60019 research buy Besides, dry etching depth of PQC structure was approximately 95 nm which was optimized through various depth etching, (the data is not shown here) since this etching depth could attain the best performance of light extraction efficiency

of our LED structure from our etching test experiments. Figure 3c,d shows the p-GaN surface and the n-side roughing regions of cross section SEM images with PQC learn more pattern, respectively. Further, the dry etching depth of the LED with PQC on n-side roughing was approximately 1.02 μm. Results and discussion Figure 4a shows the typical current–voltage (I-V) characteristics. It is found that the measured forward voltages under injection current

of 20 mA at room temperature for conventional LED, LED with PQC on p-GaN surface, LED with PQC on n-side roughing, and LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing were 3.11, 3.09, 3.14, and 3.15 V, respectively. In addition, the dynamic resistance of conventional LED, LED with PQC on p-GaN surface, LED with PQC on n-side roughing, and LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing are about 15.9, 16.7, 16.8, and 16.8 Ω, respectively. Therefore, in terms of dynamic resistance, there is no influence on this type of devices by incorporating PQC structure. The measured forward voltages at an injection current Ergoloid of 20 mA at room temperature obtain similar I-V curves for all types of LEDs on PQC etching

depth in buy Tofacitinib p-layer which was 95 nm. The coverage of ITO layer on p-GaN surface was uniform and no void defects on p-type contact, as the result in an ohmic contact in the contact area of the PQC structure on p-GaN surface, and the I-V curves of LEDs were almost similar while the etching depth of p-GaN surface was less than 95nm; however, the etching depth of p-layer was over 110 nm which indicated that there is heating and charging damages between ITO and p-GaN layer. Figure 4 Typical current–voltage ( I – V ) and light output power-current ( L – I ) characteristics. (a) Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of conventional LED, LED with PQC on p-GaN surface, LED with PQC on n-side roughing, and LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing, respectively. (b) Light output power-current (L-I) and wall-plug efficiency (WPE) characteristics of LED with/without PQC structure, respectively. The light output is detected by calibrating an integrating sphere with Si photodiode on the package device. The intensity-current (L-I) characteristics of the LEDs with and without PQC structure are shown in Figure 4b.