Addition of human platelet rich plasma (PRP) to cartilage grafts

Addition of human platelet rich plasma (PRP) to cartilage grafts resulted robustly in formation of hyaline-like cartilage that showed type II collagen and regions with type X collagen.

Conclusion: These results suggest that culture of expanded and/or de-differentiated infant hip cartilage cells in PGA-fibrin scaffolds initiates chondrocyte

re-differentiation. The heterogenous donor tissue containing immature chondrocytes bears the risk of cartilage repair failure in vivo, which may be possibly overcome by the addition of PRP. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The Distress Thermometer (DT) is a promising instrument to get insight into distress experienced by cancer patients. At our Family Cancer Clinic the DT, including an adapted Torin 2 inhibitor problem list, was completed by 100 women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (mean age 45.2 years; SD: 10.5). Additionally, the women filled in either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as psychological component (n = 48) or

the somatic subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 as somatic component (n = 50) to identify associations with the DT-score. Further, the women filled in an evaluation form.

Results: The median score on the DT was 2 (range: 0-9). With regression analysis adjusted for age, the contribution of mood and somatic complaints, respectively, was investigated. The standardized regression coefficient for anxiety was 0.32 (ns), for depression 0.14 (ns) and for the somatic subscale 0.49 RG-7388 ic50 (p < 0.001). The explained variance for anxiety and depression was 16%, and for somatic complaints 24%. The differences between the coefficients were

not significant. Evaluation selleck kinase inhibitor forms were returned by 73 women. In 50% of the cases, the physician had discussed the DT/problem list, which was appreciated by the majority of these women (80%). Sixty-two percent of the women would recommend the use of the DT for other patients.

Conclusion: The use of the DT/problem list seems promising for the current population, and was appreciated by the majority of the women. As mood and somatic complaints did not differ significantly in explaining the experienced distress, other candidate factors need to be examined. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background and Aims. Women with former gestational diabetes (fGDM) are characterized by impaired beta-cell function (BC). Incretin hormones contribute to insulin secretion after oral administration of glucose. We aimed to assess the possible role of incretins on altered insulin release in fGDM. Materials and Methods. We studied 104 fGDM women within 6 months after delivery and 35 healthy women after normal pregnancy (CNT) with a 75 g oral (OGTT) and a 0.33 g/kg intravenous (IVGTT) glucose test, both lasting 3 h.


“The introduction of neurostimulation procedures for chron


“The introduction of neurostimulation procedures for chronic drug-resistant primary headaches has offered new hope to patients, but has also introduced new problems. The methods to be used in assessing clinical outcomes and monitoring treatment efficacy need careful attention. The International Headache Society guidelines recommend that treatment efficacy should be monitored by getting patients to report the number of attacks per day, in a headache diary. The headache diary is a fundamental instrument for objectively

assessing subjective pain in terms of headache frequency, intensity and duration and analgesic consumption. The huge discrepancy sometimes reported between patient Momelotinib in vivo satisfaction and headache improvement suggests that patient satisfaction should not be a primary efficacy endpoint, and more importantly should not be put forward as an argument in establishing the efficacy of highly experimental neurostimulation procedures.”
“With MK-1775 in vitro the aim to modify the brittleness of polylactic acid (PLA), it was firstly melt blended with thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) at six different PLA wt % of 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 compositions. The properties of PLA/TPU composite were characterized by means of electron microscopy, rheological, mechanical and thermal

methods. The results showed that the brittle fracture of pure PLA was gradually transformed into ductile fracture with the addition of the TPU elastomer. The notched impact strength of the composite at 10 wt % TPU was over three times higher than that of pure PLA. The composite was found to be a partially NVP-BSK805 miscible system with shifted glass transition temperatures. The molten blend was shear-thinning fluid and it could be processed by conventional thermoplastic processes such as extrusion and injection

molding. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 855-861, 2011″
“Study Design. A biomechanical in vitro study using human cadaveric spine.

Objective. To compare the biomechanical stability of pedicle screws versus various established posterior atlantoaxial fixations used to manage atlantoaxial instability.

Summary of Background Data. Rigid screw fixation of the atlantoaxial complex provides immediate stability and excellent fusion success though has a high risk of neurovascular complications. Some spine surgeons thus insert shorter C2 pedicle or pars/isthmus screws as alternatives to minimize the latter risks. The biomechanical consequences of short pedicle screw fixation remain unclear, however.

Methods. Seven human cadaveric cervical spines with the occiput attached (C0-C3) had neutral zone (NZ) and range of motion (ROM) evaluated in three modes of loading.

The cracks are inclined with respect to the c axis of MnAs, sugge

The cracks are inclined with respect to the c axis of MnAs, suggesting their initiation by a weak plane. For films thicker than about 2 mu m, the fracture extends to the substrates, where the in-plane crack angle

changes from about 57 degrees to around 45 degrees as the cracking is dictated by the cleavage plane of the substrates. Even for films much thinner than 0.5 mu m, annealing LY3023414 results in a delamination from substrate as a consequence of the large thermal expansion and, plausibly, the oxidation of MnAs. We show that Mn capping suppresses the delamination as well as the oxidation during the annealing.”
“Subjective cognitive side effects (CSEs) are common in patients taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The objective of this Study was to predict which patients are at risk for CSEs, and compare the CSE profiles of all commonly used AEDs. In

this nomandomized retrospective study, medical records of 1694 adult outpatients with epilepsy seen at our center over a 5-year period who had taken one or more AEDs were examined. Non-AED predictors of CSEs were investigated, and rates of AED-related CSEs were compared in 1189 patients (546 on monotherapy) newly started on an AED at our center. The average rate of AED-related intolerable CSEs (leading to dosage PI3K inhibitor change or discontinuation) was 12.8%. On multivariate analysis, no significant non-AED predictors of CSEs were found. Significantly more intolerable CSEs were attributed to topiramate (21.5% of 130 patients) than to most other AEDs, including carbamazepine (9.9%), gabapentin (7.3%), PD0332991 in vitro levetiracetam (10.4%), lamotrigine (8.9%), oxcarbazepine (11.6%), and valproate (8.3%). CSE rates with zonisamide (14.9%) were significantly higher than those for gabapentin and lamotrigine. After exclusion of CSEs during the first 8 weeks of therapy, rates of CSEs were lower, but relative differences remained

unchanged. In monotherapy, significantly more intolerable CSEs occurred with topiramate (11.1% of 18 patients) than with carbamazepine or valproate, and both phenytoin and zonisamide were associated with more CSEs than valproate. From this study, it can be concluded that intolerable patient-reported CSEs are most common with topiramate, followed by zonisamide, phenytoin, and oxcarbazepine. They are least likely to be reported with gabapentin, valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“P>Cardiac retransplantation represents the gold standard treatment for a failing cardiac graft but the decision to offer the patient a second chance is often made difficult by both lack of donors and the ethical issues involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether retransplantation is a reasonable option in case of early graft failure. Between November 1985 and June 2008, 922 patients underwent cardiac transplantation at our Institution.

82; 95% confidence interval, 0 82 to 4 03; P = 0 141), although t

82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 4.03; P = 0.141), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.18).

Conclusions-ER is a heritable

phenotype. Offspring of ER-positive parents have a 2.5-fold increased risk of presenting with ER on their ECG. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:134-138.)”
“Chemical investigation of the freshwater microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana led to the isolation of a new monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol, namely, (2S)-1-O-(7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoyl)-3-O–D-galactopyranosylglycerol (1) together with a known glycolipid (2S)-1-O-(7Z,10Z,13Z-hexadecatrienoyl)-3-O–D-galactopyranosylglycerol (2). Both monogalactosylmonoacylglycerols showed dose-dependent nitric oxide Crenolanib datasheet (NO) inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells suggesting their possible use as anti-inflammatory agents.”
“Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl with an average size of 5-10 mu m have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction with a yield of similar to 100%. After the as-prepared Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl was treated with NaOH solution, the green crystals were converted to blue sisal-like Cu(OH)(2) with needle-like INCB018424 clinical trial nanorods pointing out radially from the core. These nanorods were about 100-200

nm in diameter and 10 mu m in length. Using the sisal-like Cu(OH)(2) as sacrificial precursor, CuO with a well-preserved morphological feature of the precursor was formed through thermal treatment. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, BET nitrogen adsorption, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The conversion of the synthesized Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl to sisal-like Cu(OH)(2) selleck screening library was optically visualized and confirmed by corresponding SEM images, and an “”etching-and-growing”" mechanism was proposed. The results also show that the as-prepared CuO possesses

a band gap of 2.27 eV and high specific surface area (75.8 m(2)/g), and its surface is highly rich in O.”
“Background-Understanding variation in the normal electric activity of the heart, assessed by the ECG, may provide a starting point for studies of susceptibility to serious arrhythmias such as sudden cardiac death during myocardial infarction or drug therapy. Recent genetic association studies of one ECG trait, the QT interval, have identified common variation in European-descent populations, but little is known about the genetic determinants of ECG traits in populations of African descent.

Methods and Results-To identify genetic risk factors, we have undertaken a candidate gene study of ECG traits in collaboration with the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal study of 5301 blacks ascertained from the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Nine quantitative ECG traits were evaluated: P, PR, QRS, QT, and QTc durations, heart rate, and P, QRS, and T axes.

Open questions, such as dose, (minimum) duration of treatment and

Open questions, such as dose, (minimum) duration of treatment and the individual risk/benefit ratio are subjects of prospective randomized trials which are underway. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize reservoir-based transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for buspirone (BUSP), a low bioavailable

drug. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the TTS. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, d-limonene and propylene glycol were varied as independent variables; cumulative amount AZD9291 cell line permeated across rat abdominal skin in 24 h, flux and lag time were selected as dependent variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The statistical validity of polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected by feasibility and grid search. Validation of the optimization study with seven confirmatory runs indicated high selleck degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. BUSP-OPT (optimized formulation) showed a flux 104.6 A mu g cm(-2) h(-1), which

could meet target flux. The bioavailability studies in rabbits showed that about 2.65 times improvement (p < 0.05) in bioavailability, after transdermal administration of BUSP-OPT compared to oral solution. The ex vivo-in vivo correlation was found to have biphasic pattern and followed type A correlation. Reservoir-based TTS for BUSP was developed and optimized using Box-Behnken statistical design and could provide an effective treatment in the management of anxiety.”
“Background: The routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients

with neutropenia and hematological KU 57788 malignancies is controversial. This prophylaxis has been reported to have a positive impact in reducing infection-related mortality, but the consequent development of antibiotic resistance has become a concern. This study assessed the effect of discontinuing quinolone prophylaxis on the etiology and the resistance pattern of blood culture isolates and on the prognosis among febrile neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy.

Methods: The results of blood cultures obtained from febrile neutropenic patients between January 2003 and June 2009 were analyzed; these results were available through a computer database set up in 2003.

Results: Patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis between 2003 and 2005 showed a lower incidence of Gram-negative bacteria than patients not receiving prophylaxis between 2006 and 2009 (13.5%, n = 9 vs. 48.1%, n = 75). Interestingly, after discontinuing prophylaxis, approximately 70% of the Gram-negative bacteria isolated were quinolone-resistant, and some were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The frequencies of quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolated were similar between the period of quinolone prophylaxis and the period with no prophylaxis (61.1% vs. 64.3%).


“The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study


“The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) with TVT-Secur in terms of efficacy and safety.

We set out to enrol 280 stress incontinent women with a half time interim analysis of short-term cure and a continuous registration of adverse events. Of 133 randomized women, 126 were operated and 123 (TVT n = 62, TVT-Secur

LY2606368 n = 61) available for 2 months follow-up.

No significant differences were found between groups regarding demographics or grade of incontinence. At 2 months follow-up, subjective cure rate following TVT-Secur was significantly lower than for TVT (72% and 92%, respectively, p = 0.01). Three major complications occurred in the TVT-Secur group: tape erosion into the urethra, a tape inadvertently placed inside the bladder, and an immediate postoperative bleeding from the corona mortis. No major complications occurred in the TVT group. No significant differences were found between groups regarding perioperative bleeding, hospital stay, urge symptoms, or postoperative urinary tract infections. Median time for surgery was 13 and 22 min for TVT-Secur and TVT, respectively (p < 0.0001).

In a prospective randomized controlled study, the TVT-Secur procedure had a significantly

lower subjective cure rate than the retropubic TVT procedure. Due to this, in addition to three serious complications in the TVT-Secur group, we decided to see more stop further enrolment after the interim analysis. We discourage from further

use of the TVT-Secur.”
“Magneto-inductive waveguides are linear periodic structures consisting of regular arrangements of L-C resonators coupled together by mutual inductances M. Magneto-inductive cable is a low-loss flexible variant, based on overlapping inductors and parallel plate capacitors formed by double-sided patterning of copper-clad polyimide. The properties of cable arrays formed from a set of parallel magneto-inductive lines are investigated. Numerical solutions are provided for typical arrangements. Analytic methods are introduced for estimating the coupling between elements in neighboring cables and the frequency dependence of cross-talk. Theoretical confirmation is provided selleck screening library by experimental results for cables operating at approximate to 100 MHz. Strategies for reducing cross-talk using alternative element designs that achieve low mutual inductance by cancellation of induced currents are explored. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3549147]“
“This study describes the incidence, risk factors, and treatments of graft erosion, wound granulation, and dyspareunia as adverse events following vaginal repair of pelvic organ prolapse with non-absorbable synthetic and biologic graft materials.

Material: Thirty-four children who had undergone implantation fro

Material: Thirty-four children who had undergone implantation from 2001 to 2012 were included in the study. The 2 groups were divided according to whether skin thinning was used.

Methods: Percutaneous osseointegrated implantation was performed in 1- or 2-step surgeries on patients under general anesthesia. Twenty-three patients were operated with traditional skin thinning and with a 5.5- mm long abutment, 10 patients were operated without thinning and with a 6-, 8.5-, or 9-mm-long abutment, and 1 patient

was lost. Primary points HDAC inhibitor of interest were clinical signs and symptoms of inflammation or infection at the site of skin penetration, time required for surgery, healing time, and any additional complications experienced by the patients.

Results: The group of children who underwent surgery without thinning and

with shorter follow-up time experienced fewer complications, shorter time for surgery, minimized healing time, no numbness, and improved cosmetic appeal in comparison with the group that underwent the traditional skin thinning procedure.

Conclusion: The percutaneous osseointegrated implantation technique without skin thinning that has recently been implemented in adults is also beneficial for children.”
“We report a case of severe hemolytic anemia following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a 29-year-old male patient who was treated with azithromycin. Direct Coombs’ test was strongly positive and the cold agglutinin titer was high, with anti-I specificity. Antimycoplasma antibody titer by complement fixation was high 1:10,240. The patient was discharged after 12 days Belinostat chemical structure of hospitalization in good health. He remains clinically well with no recurrence of jaundice.”
“Purpose of reviewTo discuss the relevant techniques as well as the recent evidence that enhance the understanding of the reader on the applications of CAL-101 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). With different cardiac imaging modalities available as well as the advent of TAVR, it is important to define when CMR can be helpful in the periprocedural evaluation.Recent

findingsThe topics of interest covered in this review are CMR evaluation of aortic stenosis/regurgitation, TAVR sizing, vascular measurements for access planning, postimplantation paravalvular regurgitation (PVR), and the potential role of delayed enhancement assessment in patients undergoing TAVR.SummaryCMR is a complementary modality in the assessment of TAVR candidates. The ability of CMR to assess the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis and other valvulopathies, as well as to assess accurately the left ventricular ejection fraction and vascular anatomy, makes this technique well rounded. The roles of delayed enhancement for myocardial scar in the evaluation of TAVR candidates and PVR assessment in the postimplant patient are promising, but still yet to be fully defined.

The mean age was 6 5

The mean age was 6.5 Selleckchem RSL 3 years. The seizures’ duration ranged from 6 months to 2 years. The histopathological examination of the resected lesions revealed

in 12 cases the presence of a ganglioglioma, in 7 cases dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, in I case a low grade glioma, in 2 cases cortical dysplasia, and in 2 cases cavernous malformations. In 18 cases, the lesions were located in the temporal lobe and in 6 cases the lesions were extratemporal. After a mean follow-up period of 4.4 years, 79% (19/24) of patients were seizure free. There were no permanent neurological deficits or deaths. surgery for focal epilepsy in children is a safe procedure with favorable results.”
“Introduction and objectives. Echographic studies of the composition of atheromatous plaque make use of the median gray level, which provides an overall measure of echogenicity. We propose adding an additional dimension to this approach by dividing the lesion into layers and generating a curve that shows the variation in echolucency with depth.

Methods. Femoral and carotid plaque in asymptomatic patients was investigated using both the median

gray level and new layer methods. Interobserver variability was assessed for both methods. Three risk factors were studied: age, gender and smoking status. Differences in echogenicity-depth curves between different groups were assessed using two-way ANOVA.

Results. The two methods gave similar results for the mean echogenicity of carotid and femoral plaque. Echogenicity Saracatinib inhibitor increased as a function of depth

(r=0.96; P<.001). With the median gray level method, none of the risk factors produced a change in echogenicity. However, with the layer method, the echogenicity of femoral plaque was found to increase with age (P<.001), though gender had ne effect. Moreover, the echogenicity of superficial layers was less in smokers than nonsmokers (P<.01). In carotid plaque, echogenicity increased with age (P<.01) and was higher in men (P<.01). The echogenicity of deep plaque was greater in smokers than nonsmokers (P<.05). The reproducibility BIIB057 mw of the two methods was similar.

Conclusions. The layer method was more effective than the median gray level method for identifying the effect of age, sex and smoking status on the echogenicity of atheromatous plaque.”
“Purpose Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and unmet needs (needs) questionnaires offer alternative perspectives for assessing cancer patients’ concerns. We examined whether the conceptual differences underlying these alternative approaches yield corresponding empirical differences.

Methods Eight-hundred and seventy-four women with ovarian cancer completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale (FACT-G; HRQoL) and the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34; needs) every 3 months for 2 years.

Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:314-21 “
“In this work, near critical

Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:314-21.”
“In this work, near critical n-heptane is used as reaction medium for the copolymerization of polyethylene with styrene monomer, using alkylation reaction with different amounts of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as catalyst. In this way, polyethylene chains will be more available to react with the catalyst. The reaction effect on pure reactants, as well as, the catalyst activity was

previously investigated. The reaction occurrence was corroborated by analyzing the reaction products before and after careful polystyrene extraction with tetrahydrofuran. The reaction products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Topoisomerase inhibitor differential scanning calorimetry, and selleck chemicals size exclusion chromatography. The possible architecture for the copolymer

molecule was proposed from the molecular characterization results. On the other hand, the polystyrene grafting modifies final properties of polyethylene, increasing the oxygen barrier properties without deteriorating significantly the mechanical properties of the films. In this sense this reaction seems to be a promising route to modify PE films to increase the barrier properties. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The role of G beta gamma subunits in cellular signaling has become well established in the past 20 years. Not only do they regulate effectors once thought to be the sole targets of G alpha subunits, but it has become clear that they also have a unique set of binding partners and regulate signaling learn more pathways that are not always localized to the plasma membrane. However, this may be only the beginning of the story. G beta gamma subunits interact with G protein-coupled receptors, G alpha subunits, and several different effector molecules during assembly

and trafficking of receptor-based signaling complexes and not simply in response to ligand stimulation at sites of receptor cellular activity. G beta gamma assembly itself seems to be tightly regulated via the action of molecular chaperones and in turn may serve a similar role ill the assembly of specific signaling complexes. le propose that specific G beta gamma subunits have a broader role in controlling the architecture, assembly, and activity of cellular signaling pathways.”
“Background: An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study.

The wettability of the membrane was determined using sessile drop

The wettability of the membrane was determined using sessile drop contact angle measurement. Using dual-coagulation bath system, it was found that membrane with bicontinuous structure tends to have higher water contact angles. This membrane could be produced through short immersion time of 18 wt % PVDF solution in soft nonsolvent bath followed by coagulation in water nonsolvent bath. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: This study investigated the relationship between drug use and sex work patterns and sex work income earned among street-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Vancouver, Canada.

Methods: We used data from a sample

of 129 FSWs who used drugs in a prospective buy GDC-0994 cohort (2007-2008), for a total of 210 observations. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression using generalized estimating equations was used to model Quisinostat clinical trial the relationship between explanatory factors and sex work income. Sex work income was log-transformed to account for skewed data.

Results: The

median age of the sample at first visit was 37 years (interquartile range[IQR]: 30-43), with 46.5% identifying as Caucasian, 48.1% as Aboriginal and 5.4% as another visible minority. The median weekly sex work income and amount spent on drugs was $300 (IQR = $100-$560) and $400 (IQR = $150-$780), respectively. In multivariable analysis, for a 10% increase in money spent on drugs, sex work income increased by 1.9% (coeff: 0.20, 95% CIs: AZD1208 ic50 0.04-0.36). FSWs who injected heroin, FSWs with higher numbers of clients and youth compared to older women (<25 versus 25+ years) also had significantly higher sex work income.

Conclusions: This study highlights the important role that drug use plays in contributing to increased dependency on sex work for income

among street-based FSWs in an urban Canadian setting, including a positive dose-response relationship between money spent on drugs and sex work income. These findings indicate a crucial need to scale up access and availability of evidence-based harm reduction and treatment approaches, including policy reforms, improved social support and economic choice for vulnerable women. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Background: Latinos have become the largest minority group in the United States and will represent 25% of the US population by 2050. Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of poverty and poor health outcomes.

Objectives: We critically examined the evidence for a link between acculturation and health disparities in Latinos with a focus on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nutrition-related risk factors and illustrated how acculturation principles can help design a culturally appropriate T2D self-management intervention in Latinos.