These monolayers can be subsequently modified to produce a surfac

These monolayers can be subsequently modified to produce a surface

of a specific functionality. Here various organosilane deposition protocols and some application notes are provided as a basis for the novice reader to construct their own silanization procedures, and as a practical resource to a broader range of techniques even for the experienced user. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3625605]“
“The mineral brushite has been synthesised by mixing calcium ions and hydrogen phosphate anions to mimic the reactions in caves. The vibrational spectra of the synthesised brushite PLX4032 chemical structure were compared with that of the natural cave mineral. Bands attributable Nutlin-3 research buy to the PO43 and HPO42 anions are observed. Brushite, both synthetic and natural, is characterised by an intense sharp band at 985?cm-1 with a shoulder at 1000?cm-1. Characteristic bending modes are observed in the 300 to 600?cm-1 region. The spectra of the synthesised brushite matches very well the spectrum of brushite from the Moorba Cave, Western Australia. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Although use

of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid dependence is expected to continue to increase, little is known about the optimal setting for providing the medical and psychosocial care required with buprenorphine pharmacotherapy.\n\nObjective: Buparlisib mw This study compared buprenorphine therapy delivered in 3 distinct treatment settings: an opioid treatment program (OTP) offering individual counseling, a group counseling program utilizing the manualized Matrix Model (MMM) of cognitive-behavioral treatment, and a private clinic setting mirroring standard medical management for buprenorphine treatment provided specifically at a psychiatrist’s private practice (primary care setting).\n\nMethod: Participants were inducted on buprenorphine and provided with treatment over a 52-week study duration. All participants were scheduled

for weekly treatment visits for the first 6 study weeks and 2 sites reduced treatment to monthly visits for dispensing of medication and psychosocial counseling. Outcomes include opioid use, participant retention in treatment, and treatment participation.\n\nResults: Participants presenting for treatment at the sites differed only by race/ethnicity and opioid use did not differ by site. Retention differed by treatment site, with the number of participants who stayed in the study until the end of 20 weeks significantly associated with treatment site. The mean number of minutes spent in each individual counseling session also differed by site. Although no difference in opioid use by treatment site was found, results document a significant association between opioid use and buprenorphine dose.

lowest quartile of VAI were 4 44 (95% CI, 2 24-8 82) and 4 23 (1

lowest quartile of VAI were 4.44 (95% CI, 2.24-8.82) and 4.23 (1.99-9.00) for women and men, respectively.\n\nConclusion:

Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and high VAI score are associated with substantially elevated risk of CHD in Chinese men and women. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives This study sought to investigate the impact of left main coronary artery (LMCA) 3-dimensional (3D) bifurcation angle (BA) parameters on 5-year clinical outcomes of patients randomized to LMCA percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial.\n\nBackground BA can affect outcome after bifurcation PCI; 3D angiographic analysis provides reliable BA measurements.\n\nMethods The diastolic distal BA (between left anterior descending and left circumflex) and its systolic-diastolic range were explored. A stratified post-hoc survival analysis was performed for 5-year major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular PLX4032 molecular weight events (MACCE)

(all-cause death, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization), a safety endpoint (all-cause death, cerebrovascular accident, or myocardial infarction), and repeat revascularization. Analysis was performed in patients where 3D BA was available pre- and post-PCI.\n\nResults Of 266 patients eligible for analysis, 185 underwent bifurcation PCI (group B); 1 stent was used in 75 patients (group B1), whereas >= 2 stents were used in 110 patients (group B2). Stratification across pre-PCI diastolic distal BA tertiles (<82 degrees, 82 degrees to 106 degrees, >= 107 degrees) failed to show any difference in MACCE rates either in the entire study

population (p = 0.99) or in group B patients (p = 0.78). Group B patients with post-PCI systolic-diastolic range <10 degrees had significantly higher MACCE rates (50.8% vs. 22.7%, p < 0.001); repeat revascularization and safety endpoint rates were also higher (37.4% vs. 15.5%, p = 0.002, and 25.4% vs. 14.1%, p = 0.055, respectively). Post-PCI systolic-diastolic click here range <10 degrees was an independent predictor of MACCE (hazard ratio: 2.65; 95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 4.52; p < 0.001) in group B patients.\n\nConclusions A restricted post-procedural systolic-diastolic distal BA range resulted in higher 5-year adverse event rates after LMCA bifurcation PCI. Pre-PCI BA value did not affect the clinical outcome. (C) 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the CNS causing disability and neurological symptoms that carry a substantial burden. Previous Italian studies appear outdated, and investigation on the burden of recently marketed drug treatments should provide further economic evidence for policy makers.

“Purpose of review The 5-year and 15-year life expectancy

“Purpose of review The 5-year and 15-year life expectancy following the treatment of localized prostate cancer is excellent. Patients may develop rare but devastating complications following the surgery for prostate cancer. The purpose of this

review is to summarize the available literature to date surrounding the management of the incontinent patient with a concomitant bladder neck contracture (BNC), or sphincteric stricture, following radical prostatectomy. Recent findings The literature consists of several case series, but no clinical trials exist to provide an evidence-based approach to the incontinent patient with concomitant BNC. Fortunately, this is a relatively rare clinical scenario and most cases are successfully click here managed with urethral dilatation or endoscopic techniques. Multiple endoscopic techniques are available. In addition,

some authors include injectable agents in their armamentarium for the treatment of BNC. Open reconstructive techniques or permanent urinary diversion may be necessary in rare cases. Both male slings and artificial urinary sphincter may be considered for the management of concomitant urinary incontinence. Some authors suggest it is safe to proceed with simultaneous artificial urinary sphincter implantation at the time of endoscopic management CA4P of the BNC. Summary Management of the Autophagy Compound Library solubility dmso incontinent patient with concomitant BNC represents a challenging situation for the urologist. Several techniques are available to stabilize the BNC before safely proceeding with surgery for urinary incontinence. For the rare, complex case that has failed endoscopic management, referral to a surgeon experienced in reconstructive techniques is warranted.”
“The boxicity (cubicity) of a graph G is the minimum natural number k such that G can be represented as an intersection graph of axis-parallel rectangular boxes (axis-parallel unit cubes) in R-k. In this article, we give estimates

on the boxicity and the cubicity of Cartesian, strong and direct products of graphs in terms of invariants of the component graphs. In particular, we study the growth, as a function of d, of the boxicity and the cubicity of the dth power of a graph with respect to the three products. Among others, we show a surprising result that the boxicity and the cubicity of the dth Cartesian power of any given finite graph is, respectively, in O(log d/ log log d) and circle dot(d/ log d). On the other hand, we show that there cannot exist any sublinear bound on the growth of the boxicity of powers of a general graph with respect to strong and direct products. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored.

Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evi

Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evidences for GSK461364 order increased activities of key enzymes of anaerobic glucose fate such as pyruvate kinase M2 isoform, lactate

dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phopshate dehydrogenase in cancer stem cells as well as different redox status. Moreover, we show that treatment with 2-deoxyglucose, a well known inhibitor of glycolysis, inhibits BCSC proliferation when used alone and shows a synergic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of glycolysis may be a potentially effective strategy to target BCSCs.”
“Common quantitative trait locus (QTL) BMS-754807 cost mapping methods fail to analyze survival traits of skewed normal

distributions. As a result, some mapping methods for survival traits have been proposed based on survival analysis. Under a single QTL model, however, those methods perform poorly in detecting multiple QTLs and provide biased estimates of QTL parameters. For sparse oversaturated model used to map survival time loci, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for Cox regression model can be employed to efficiently shrink most of genetic effects to zero. Then, a few non-zero genetic effects are re-estimated and statistically tested using the standard maximum Cox partial likelihood method. Simulation shows that the proposed method has higher statistic power for QTL detection than that of the LASSO for logarithmic linear model or the interval mapping based on Cox model, although it somewhat underestimates QTL effects. Especially, computational speed of the method is very fast. An application of this method illustrates mapping AS1842856 ic50 main effect and interacting QTLs for heading time in the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

Context: The potential of cluster analysis (CA) as a baseline predictor of multivariate gerontologic outcomes over a long period of time has not been previously demonstrated. Methods: Restricting candidate variables to a small group of established predictors of deleterious gerontologic outcomes, various CA methods were applied to baseline values from 754 nondisabled, community-living persons, aged 70 years or older. The best cluster solution yielded at baseline was subsequently used as a fixed explanatory variable in time-to-event models of the first occurrence of the following outcomes: any disability in four activities of daily living, any disability in four mobility measures, and death. Each outcome was recorded through a maximum of 129 months or death.

Multiple metastatic involvement of bones and soft tissues appeare

Multiple metastatic involvement of bones and soft tissues appeared several years later. Genetic testing identified a mutation in succinate

dehydrogenase subunit B gene, with paternal see more transmission. I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy was performed 3 times with no tumoral response. Our patient is alive, with adequate quality of life, 25 years after initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of paraganglioma presenting with hemorrhagic stroke. Intracerebral hemorrhage was probably caused by severe hypertension due to paraganglioma. Therefore, we expand the recognized clinical spectrum of the disease. Physicians evaluating children with hemorrhagic stroke, particularly if hypertension is a main symptom, should consider the possibility of catecholamine-secreting tumors. Metastatic AG-881 mouse disease is associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations and, although some patients have poor prognosis, progression can be indolent.”
“Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) has been detected in many cancers. Tobacco exposure is known to induce genetic and epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of malignancy. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is an important carcinogen present in tobacco smoke; however the detailed molecular mechanism of how NNK induces esophageal carcinogenesis is still unclear. We found that DNMT1 was overexpressed

in ESCC tissues compared with paired non-cancerous Fosbretabulin molecular weight tissues, the overexpression being correlated with smoking status and low expression of RAR beta. The latter could be upregulated by NNK treatment in Het-1A cells, and the increased DNMT1 expression level reflected promoter hypermethylation and downregulation of retinoic acid receptor beta(RAR beta). RNA interference mediated knockdown of DNMT1 resulted in promoter demethylation and upregulation of RAR beta in KYSE30 and TE-1 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

(MTT) and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that NNK treatment in Het-1A cells could enhance cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, DNMT1 overexpression is correlated with smoking status and low expression of RAR beta in esophageal SCC patients. NNK could induce RAR beta promoter hypermethylation through upregulation of DNMT1 in esophageal squamous epithelial cells, finally leading to enhancement of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis.”
“Although rabbit does are generally single housed on rabbit farms worldwide, it has been suggested by some specialists and recommendation of organic rabbit production systems that group housing of does is more comfortable and similar to the living conditions of the European wild rabbits. The aim of this experiment was to compare production of single-caged (S) and group-housed does (G). The S does were housed in commercial rabbit cages (floor area 0.32 m(2) and 0.3 m high).

(C) 2014 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“A consensus ne

(C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A consensus nested PCR was used to screen diagnostic samples from approximately 70 reptiles for the presence of adenoviruses (AdV) in the years 2006-2007. Classical virus isolation methods were also used with all samples. After adenoviruses were detected in a group of helodermatid lizards

in a Danish zoo, a follow-up study was also carried out on lizards from this group (10 Mexican beaded lizards and 24 Gila monsters) over the period of a year. Adenoviruses were detected MEK162 research buy in a total of 26 lizards and snakes by PCR. The PCR amplicons from all positive animals were sequenced and the resulting polymerase gene sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis. Altogether six Agamid AdVs were amplified, with a minimal sequence variation between one another and between these and GenBank Agamid AdVs. The sequence obtained from one of the Gila monsters is identical with the GenBank Helodermatid AdV, while the sequences from

the Mexican beaded lizards differ from this. In a snake collection we have detected a new AdV from an Asp viper. All of the above mentioned adenoviruses Cluster in the Atadenovirus genus. However, the sequence Crenolanib from a new Varanid AdV detected in this study clusters; outside this genus. On cell culture, viruses were isolated from three of the AdV positive helodermatid lizards (one Mexican beaded lizard and two Gila monsters)and identified as AdVs based on electron microscopy and PCR and sequencing using cell culture supernatant. This is the first report of the successful isolation of a lizard AdV. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“P>Background:\n\nThe current management of thyroid lymphomas (TL) includes the combined use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with surgery mainly

confined to diagnosis through an open biopsy following ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC).\n\nAims:\n\nTo analyse the clinical presentation and methods of diagnosis of TL, its buy Cl-amidine pitfalls and the management of these tumours presenting with compression symptoms and airway obstruction.\n\nMethods:\n\nA retrospective review of nine patients diagnosed with TL at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in London over the past 5 years.\n\nResults:\n\nNine consecutive patients were identified with the diagnosis of TL, and seven (78%) of them being women and with a mean age of 65 years. All patients presented with an anterior neck mass while four (44.4%) presented with stridor and vocal cord palsy. Two (22.2%) presented with a hoarse voice, dysphagia, and only one patient had a B symptom of weight loss. FNAC was diagnostic in three patients (33.3%) and a report of multi-nodular goitre in one patient. There was clinical suspicion of TL in three patients (33.3%).

Results: Sensory block was achieved in 94% of patients in the

\n\nResults: Sensory block was achieved in 94% of patients in the circumferential injection group compared with 69% in the single-location injection click here group (P = 0.010). There were no differences detected in block performance time, pain during block performance, or block-related complications between groups.\n\nConclusions: Ultrasound-guided circumferential injection of local anesthetic around the sciatic nerve at the popliteal

fossa can improve the rate of sensory block without an increase in block procedure time or block-related complications compared with a single-location injection technique.”
“Although climate change models predict relatively modest increases in temperature in the tropics by the end of the century, recent analyses identify tropical ectotherms as the organisms most at risk from see more climate warming. Because metabolic rate in ectotherms increases exponentially with temperature, even a small rise in temperature poses a physiological threat to tropical ectotherms inhabiting an already hot environment. If correct, the metabolic theory of climate warming has profound implications for global biodiversity, since tropical insects and arachnids constitute the vast majority of animal species. Predicting how climate change will translate into fitness consequences for tropical arthropods requires an understanding of the effects of temperature increase on the entire life history of the

species. Here, in a comprehensive case study of the fitness consequences of the projected

temperature increase for the tropics, we conducted a split-brood experiment on the neotropical pseudoscorpion, Cordylochernes scorpioides, in which 792 offspring from 33 females were randomly assigned at birth to control- and high-temperature treatments for rearing through the adult stage. The diurnally varying, control treatment temperature was determined from long-term, average daily temperature minima and maxima in the pseudoscorpion’s native habitat. In the high temperature treatment, increasing temperature by RSL3 purchase the 3.5 degrees C predicted for the tropics significantly reduced survival and accelerated development at the cost of reduced adult size and a dramatic decrease in level of sexual dimorphism. The most striking effects, however, involved reproductive traits. Reared at high temperature, males produced 45% as many sperm as control males, and females failed to reproduce. Sequencing of the mitochondrial ND2 gene revealed two highly divergent haplogroups that differed substantially in developmental rate and survivorship but not in reproductive response to high temperature. Our findings suggest that reproduction may be the Achilles heel of tropical ectotherms, as climate warming subjects them to an increasingly adverse thermal environment.”
“Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3548-3560,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3548-3560, 2009″
“Suppose G is a graph. Two edges e and e’ in G are said to be adjacent if they share a common end vertex, and distance two apart if they are nonadjacent but both are adjacent to a common edge. Let j and k be two positive integers. An L(j,k)-edge-labeling of a graph G is an assignment of nonnegative integers, called labels, to the edges of G such that the difference between labels of any two adjacent edges is at least j, and the difference between labels of any two

edges that are distance two apart is at least k. The minimum range check details of labels over all L(j,k)-edge-labelings of a graph G is called the L(j,k)-edge-labeling number of G, denoted by . Let m, j and k be positive integers. An m-circular-L(j,k)-edge-labeling of a graph G is an assignment f from 0,1,aEuro broken vertical bar,m-1 to the edges of G such that, for any two edges e and e’, |f(e)-f(e’)| (m) a parts per thousand yenj if e and e’ are adjacent, and |f(e)-f(e’)| (m) a parts per thousand yenk if e and e’ are distance two apart, where |a| (m) =mina,m-a. The minimum m such that G has an m-circular-L(j,k)-edge-labeling

is called the circular-L(j,k)-edge-labeling number of G, denoted by . This paper investigates the L(1,1)-edge-labeling numbers, the L(2,1)-edge-labeling numbers and the circular-L(2,1)-edge-labeling numbers of the hexagonal lattice, the square lattice, the triangular lattice and the strong product of two infinite paths.”
“The remains of an ornithopod dinosaur from the Upper Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of Auxerre (Burgundy, France) are described. They consist of

several vertebrae and a fragmentary scapula. Despite obvious morphological and dimensional affinities with the species Iguanodon bernissartensis, the state of the specimen does not allow any identification more precise than Iguanodontia indet. Reappraisal of the French Upper Barremian record of medium and large-sized ornithopods reveals that no specimen can be definitely MLN4924 clinical trial determined to the specific level. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 increases cardiovascular deaths. Identifying a biomarker of COX-2 is desirable but difficult, since COX-1 and COX-2 ordinarily catalyze formation of an identical product, prostaglandin H-2. When acetylated by aspirin, however, COX-2 (but not COX-1) can form 15(R)-HETE, which is metabolized to aspirin-triggered lipoxin (ATL), 15-epi-lipoxin A(4). Here we have used COX-1- and COX-2-knockout mice to establish whether plasma ATL could be used as a biomarker of vascular COX-2 in vivo. Vascular COX-2 was low but increased by LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p). Aspirin (10 mg/kg; i.v.) inhibited COX-1, measured as blood thromboxane and COX-2, measured as lung PGE(2). Aspirin also increased the levels of ATL in the lungs of LPS-treated wild-type C57Bl6 mice (vehicle: 25.5 +/- 9.3 ng/ml; 100 mg/kg: 112.0 +/- 7.

The clinical presentation of SpA is heterogeneous, and no single

The clinical presentation of SpA is heterogeneous, and no single shared distinguishing feature exists for

the conditions comprising SpA; in daily practice, diagnosis is usually made on the basis of a combination of symptoms, the findings of physical examination, imaging and laboratory investigations. Several classification criteria have been developed for AS and SpA, which are useful in a research setting but cannot be automatically applied to the diagnosis of individual patients. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality available for detection of sacroiliitis, often enabling detection of axial inflammation long before structural lesions are observed radiographically, thus facilitating early diagnosis of axial SpA. However, MRI will never capture all facets of SpA and the expert opinion of a rheumatologist will PCI-32765 datasheet remain the crucial step GDC 0032 inhibitor in recognition of this disease. In this Review, we discuss diagnosis and classification of AS and SpA, and highlight how MRI

might facilitate both processes.”
“Changes in the abundance of the house fly, Musca domestica, was studied for a period of one year in two poultry farms in Penang, Malaysia: one in Balik Pulau, located in Penang island, and the other in Juru, located on mainland Penang. The sampling of house flies were carried out from March 2007 to April 2008 using the Scudder grill, and the correlation with meteorological conditions particularly selleck rainfall, relative humidity and temperature were observed. In Balik Pulau, the fly abundance showed an inverse relationship to relative humidity and total rainfall. However, no significant correlations were found

between the abundance of flies and the above mentioned climatic factors. In contrast, the occurrence of flies in Juru showed strong correlation indices with relative humidity (r = 0.803, p < 0.05) and total rainfall (r = 0.731, p < 0.05). Temperature had no significant effect on the abundance of flies in both poultry farms due to imperceptible changes in monthly temperature.”
“Primary stabbing headache (PSH) is a primary syndrome of unknown aetiology, characterised by brief, jabbing stabs predominantly felt in the orbital, temporal and parietal areas, whose frequency may vary from one to many per day, usually responding to indomethacin. PSH frequency in the general population is not well defined, but recent evidence suggests it could be more frequent than previously thought. In clinical series, PSH incidence was 33/100,000 per year, while in a population study 35.2 % prevalence was found. PSH was previously described as isolated or associated to other headache syndromes, most frequently with migraine.

Interpretation & conclusion: These results suggest that dieta

\n\nInterpretation & conclusion: These results suggest that dietary supplementation

with find more amla protects against bacterial colonization of lungs on long-term feeding in experimental model. Further studies need to be conducted to understand the actual mechanism.”
“P>Aim\n\nTo test the hypothesis that peri-implant bone formation and mechanical stability of surface-modified zirconia and titanium implants are equivalent.\n\nMaterials and Methods\n\nTwelve minipigs received three types of implants on either side of the mandible 8 weeks after removal of all pre-molar teeth: (i) a zirconia implant with a sandblasted surface; (ii) a zirconia implants with a sandblasted and etched surface; and (iii) a titanium implant with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface that served as a control. Removal torque and peri-implant bone regeneration were evaluated in six animals each after 4 and 13 weeks.\n\nResults\n\nThe titanium surface was significantly rougher than both tested zirconia surfaces. Mean bone to implant contact (BIC) compound inhibitor did not differ significantly between the three implant

types after 4 weeks but was significantly higher for titanium compared with both zirconia implants after 13 weeks (p < 0.05). Bone volume density (BVD) did not differ significantly at any interval. Removal torque was significantly higher for titanium compared with both zirconia surfaces after 4 and 13 weeks (p < 0.001). The sandblasted and etched zirconia surface showed a significantly higher removal torque after 4 weeks compared with sandblasted zirconia GSK3235025 mouse (p < 0.05); this difference levelled out after 13 weeks.\n\nConclusions\n\nIt is concluded that all implants achieved osseointegration with similar degrees of BIC and BVD; however, titanium implants showed a higher resistance to removal torque,

probably due to higher surface roughness.”
“Objective: To assess the effect of electronic reminders (ERs) on response rate and time to response for the return of postal questionnaires.\n\nStudy Design and Setting: This open randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the University of York. Participants who were taking part in an established RCT and who provided an electronic mail address and/or mobile telephone number were eligible to take part in the study. The intervention group received ERs on the day they were expected to receive postal questionnaires.\n\nResults: One hundred forty-eight participants (19 male and 129 female) aged 47 +/- 11 (range, 19-65) years were studied. About 89.2% of participants returned postal questionnaires. There was no difference in questionnaire response rates in control (64 of 74 [86.5%]) vs. intervention (68 of 74 [91.9%]), groups (relative risk = 1.063, 95% confidence interval: 0.949-1.189). Median questionnaire time to response was 4 days less in the intervention group (10.0 +/- 0.2; range, 10-14 days) compared with the control group (14.0 +/- 1.4; range, 10-23 days) (chi(2)(idr) = 5.27, P = 0.022).