In agreement with previous studies (Schenberg et al., 2000; Schimitel et al., 2012), these data add fresh evidence of the separate processing of DPAG-evoked somatic (freezing and flight) and pelvic (micturition and defecation) responses. Interestingly, urges for micturition and defecation are neither experienced by patients during panic attacks (Goetz et al., 1994, 1996) nor recognised as symptoms typical of clinical panic (WHO, 1993;
APA, 2000). Lastly, comparisons of the thresholds of FS, ES and IS groups are validated by the remarkable similarity of stimulated sites. Indeed, electrodes were mostly localised in DPAG (76.9%) and nearby regions of superior GDC-0199 colliculus (21.5%) that cannot be discriminated by electrical stimulation with sine-wave pulses (Bittencourt et al., 2004; Schenberg et al., 2005). Evidence amassed over recent decades suggests that subjects exposed to uncontrollable stress develop a depression-like syndrome PFT�� research buy characterised by a decrease in motivation to respond to the same or other aversive stimuli, a cognitive deficit (learned helplessness) that interferes with the learning of a new escape task in a heterotypical context, and emotion and mood effects, including the early increase in anxiety and the late development of depression upon prolonged exposure to uncontrollable stress. Data
from yoked experiments presented compelling evidence that these effects result from the subject’s learning that stress is beyond control and not from the stressor aversiveness on its own (Maier & Seligman, 1976; Maier, 1984; Maier & Watkins, 1998, 2005). Similarly, the FST is a widespread procedure for screening of potential antidepressants (Porsolt et al., 1991) that is based on the assumption that floating is an expression of a depressed mood brought about by inescapable stress. Although these models are both based on learning, they differ in other respects. Thus, whereas the learned helplessness appears to be the
Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase result of the subject’s associative learning that responses are equally rewarded or punished (Seligman & Beagley, 1975; Maier & Seligman, 1976), the FST is an extinction-like non-associative learning whereby the subject learns that swimming is a futile effort in successfully cope with stress (i.e., escape from the water tank). Consequently, floating has also been interpreted as an energy-sparing tactic (West, 1990). Regardless of whether or not uncontrollable stress produces a true depressed mood, IS inhibition of escape responses to foot-shock and intracranial stimulus implicates the DPAG as a likely substrate of both responses. Indeed, although most researchers associate the outcome of uncontrollable stress with putative changes in hippocampus (Leshner & Segal, 1979; Petty et al., 1993, 1994; Amat et al., 1998; Joca et al., 2003, 2006; Malberg & Duman, 2003; Zhou et al., 2008), amygdala (Maier et al., 1993; Amat et al.