“Leaf litter decomposes on the surface of soil in natural

“Leaf litter decomposes on the surface of soil in natural systems and element transfers between litter and soil are commonly found. However, how litter and soil organic matter (SOM) interact to influence decomposition rate and nitrogen (N) release remains unclear.\n\nLeaf litter and mineral soil of top 0-5 cm from six forests were incubated separately, or together with litter on soil surface at 25 A degrees C for 346 days. Litter N remaining and soil respiration rate were repeatedly measured during incubation. DAPT Litter carbon (C) and mass losses and mineral N concentrations

in litter and soil were measured at the end of incubation.\n\nNet N transfer from soil to litter was found in all litters when incubated with soil. Litter incubated with soil lost more C than litter incubated alone after 346 days. For litters with initial C: N ratios lower than

52, net N-min after 346 days was 100 % higher when incubated with soil than when incubated alone. Litter net N-min rate was negatively related to initial C: N ratio when incubated with soil but not when incubated alone. Soil respiration rate and net N-min rate did not differ between soil incubated with litter and soil incubated alone.\n\nWe ON-01910 solubility dmso conclude that soils may enhance litter decomposition rate by net N transfer from soil to litter. Our results together with studies on litter mixture decomposition suggest that net N transfer between decomposing organic matter with different N status may be common

and may significantly influence decomposition and N release. The low net N-min rate during litter decomposition along with the small size of litter N pool compared to soil N pool suggest that SOM rather than decomposing litter is the major contributor to plant mineral N supply.”
“Although many recent studies have suggested that CDzr helper T cell (Th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that CDT’ Th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. In the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV) was used to investigate the functions of CDT’ cells during humoral and cell-mediated immunity. With Adriamycin regard to humoral immunity, transplanting CHNV-sensitized donor cells, containing OA(+) cells, into naive fish induced more rapid and stronger antibody production than by transplanting non-sensitized donor cells or sensitized donor cells lacking CIA(+) cells. During cell-mediated immunity, no significant differences were found in recipients that received sensitized cells regardless of whether the donor cells contained CD4+ cells, although recipients that received both sensitized donor cells (with and without CD4+ cells) exhibited more efficient cell-mediated cytotoxicity than those that received nonsensitized donor cells.

Breeding of resistant cultivars is currently hampered by the rapi

Breeding of resistant cultivars is currently hampered by the rapid breakdown of BPH resistance(2). Thus, there is an urgent need to identify more effective BPH-resistance LY3039478 inhibitor genes. Here, we report molecular cloning and characterization of Bph3, a locus in rice identified

more than 30 years ago that confers resistance to BPH. We show that Bph3 is a cluster of three genes encoding plasma membrane-localized lectin receptor kinases (OsLecRK1-OsLecRK3). Introgression of Bph3 into susceptible rice varieties by transgenic or marker-assisted selection strategies significantly enhanced resistance to both the BPH and the white back planthopper. Our results suggest that these lectin receptor kinase genes function together to confer broad-spectrum and durable insect resistance and provide a resource for molecular AZD8186 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor breeding of insect-resistant rice cultivars.”
“This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing

by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students.

The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according BYL719 to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.”
“The introduction of the WHO FRAX (R) algorithms has facilitated the assessment of fracture risk on the basis of fracture probability.

33 Mb deletion of 1q21 3q23 3 (hg18; chr1: 153035245-159367106) i

33 Mb deletion of 1q21.3q23.3 (hg18; chr1: 153035245-159367106) in two siblings presenting with blepharophimosis, ptosis, microbrachycephaly, severe psychomotor, and intellectual disability. Additional common features include small corpus callosum, normal birth length and head circumference, postnatal growth restriction, low anterior hairline, upturned nose, bilateral preauricular pits, widely spaced teeth, gingival hypertrophy, left ventricular dilatation with decreased biventricular systolic function, delayed bone age, 5th finger clinodactyly, short 3rd digit, hyperconvex

nails, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and bilateral heel contractures. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed in the mother of both children buy ON-01910 showed an apparently balanced, intrachromosomal insertional translocation of 1q21.3q23.3 to 1q42.12. see more The sibling recurrence likely arose by a maternal meiotic crossing over on the rearranged chromosome 1 between the deleted region

and the insertion. We hypothesize that the decreased cardiac function and contractures may be related to LMNA haploinsufficiency. This case illustrates the importance of FISH when attempting to determine inheritance of a copy-number variation and emphasize the value of evaluating known haploinsufficiency phenotypes for genes in deleted regions. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We found that the epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)/epigallocatechin (EGC) ratio in a green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract was affected by the extraction temperature.

The EGCG/EGC ratio in the 4 degrees C extract was around 1:3-4, whereas Selleck PF-6463922 in the 100 degrees C extract, it was around 1:0.7. Oral administration of the mixture with a high EGC ratio (1:2-3 = EGCG/EGC) resulted in greater IgA production by murine Peyer’s patch cells.”
“Introduction: Group sex among gay men has been associated with other HIV risk behaviours. Gay men who engage in group sex may be at increased risk of infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI).\n\nMethods: The Three or More Study (TOMS) of group sex among gay men utilised an anonymous, self-completed survey about participants’ most recent occasion of group sex with other men and in-depth interviews with a small number of these survey participants. The 436 men who reported having engaged in group sex within the previous month were included in these analyses.\n\nResults: Among 436 men who engaged in group sex within the previous month, 32.5% reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with non-regular, mostly HIV non-seroconcordant partners at this recent group sex encounter (GSE) and the majority reported other sex practices that are risk factors for STI other than HIV. Over one-third reported having been tested for HIV or other STI since their last GSE; those who had engaged in UAI at the GSE were more likely to have been tested (p = 0.008).

The IgTree (c) program implements the algorithm we developed, and

The IgTree (c) program implements the algorithm we developed, and generates lineage trees. Original sequences

found in experiments are assigned to either leaves or internal nodes of the tree. Each tree node represents a single mutation separating the sequences. The mutations that separate the sequences from each other can be point mutations, deletions or insertions. The program can deal with gaps and find potential reversion mutations. The program also enumerates mutation frequencies and sequence motifs around each mutation, on a per-tree basis. The algorithm has proven useful in several studies of immunoglobulin variable region gene mutations. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Effective pneumococcal vaccines are required for preventing secondary bacterial pneumonia, a life-threatening condition, during epidemics of influenza.

We examined whether RSL3 datasheet nasal administration of a low dose of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) plus polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) could protect against a fatal secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza A virus infection in mice. PspA-specific IgG but not IgA level was higher in the airways and blood of mice nasally administered a low dose of PspA plus poly(I:C) than in mice nasally administered PspA alone or poly(I:C) alone. Binding of PspA-specific IgG increased C3 deposition on the bacterial surface.

The survival rate during secondary infection was higher in mice immunized with PspA plus poly(I:C) buy ABT-737 than in mice immunized with poly(I:C) alone. The significant reduction Anlotinib in bacterial density in the lung and blood was associated with increased survival of immunized mice with secondary pneumonia. Passive transfer of sera from mice immunized with PspA plus poly(I:C) increased the survival of mice infected with secondary pneumonia. Our data suggest that an intranasal PspA vaccine has promising protective effects against secondary pneumonia after influenza and that PspA-specific IgG plays a critical role in this protection. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In aerobic organisms, protection against oxidative damage involves the combined action of highly specialized antioxidant enzymes, such as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. In this work, a cDNA clone which encodes a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene, named PS-CuZnSOD, has been identified from P. sibiricum Laxm. by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene cDNA clone consists of 669 bp, containing 87 bp in the 5′ untranslated region; 459 bp in the open reading frame (ORF) encoding 152 amino acids; and 123 bp in 3′ untranslated region. The gene accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is GQ472846.

Here, we describe in vivo and ex vivo experiments that implicate

Here, we describe in vivo and ex vivo experiments that implicate the fibrillins as negative regulators of bone resorption. Adult Fbn2(-/-) mice display a greater than normal osteolytic response to locally implanted lipopolysaccharide-coated titanium

particles. Although isolated cultures of Fbn2(-/-) preosteoclasts exhibited normal differentiation and activity, these features were substantially augmented when mutant or wild-type preosteoclasts were co-cultured with Fbn2(-/-) but not wild-type osteoblasts. Greater osteoclastogenic potential of Fbn2(-/-) osteoblasts was largely accounted for by up-regulation of the Rankl gene secondary to heightened TGF beta activity. This conclusion was based on the findings that blockade of TGF

beta signaling blunts Rankl up-regulation in Fbn2(-/-) osteoblasts and bones and that systemic TGF beta antagonism improves locally induced osteolysis in Fbn2(-/-) mice. Abnormally high Rankl https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lb-100.html expression secondary to elevated TGF beta activity was also noted in cultured osteoblasts from Fbn1(-/-) mice. Collectively our data demonstrated that extracellular microfibrils balance local catabolic and anabolic signals during bone remodeling in addition to implying distinct mechanisms of bone loss in Marfan syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly.”
“Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients receiving chronic maintenance immunosuppression and is often considered the most important infection in renal transplantation. CMV gastritis has MK-8931 molecular weight been reported in transplant recipients. Symptoms are usually considered nonspecific, and gastroscopy with biopsy is usually performed to establish the diagnosis.\n\nMethods. We report a case of primary CMV

gastritis in a renal transplant recipient. A 34-year-old man presented 4 months after renal transplantation with a 1-week history of epigastric pain that decreased in supine position, increased while sitting, and further increased when standing or walking. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Evaluation revealed CMV viremia Selleck HIF inhibitor with a high viral load and CMV gastritis was confirmed using gastroscopy and histopathologic examination. Intravenous ganciclovir was started and continued for 3 weeks. The epigastric pain completely resolved after treatment with ganciclovir.\n\nConclusions. Postural epigastric pain as a sign of CMV gastritis is fairly rare in renal transplant recipients. To our knowledge this is the third article presented in the literature so far.”
“Background: The production of gametocytes is essential for transmission of malaria parasites from the mammalian host to the mosquito vector. However the process by which the asexual blood-stage parasite undergoes commitment to sexual development is not well understood.

Results Among a total of 297 registered osteosarcoma patients, s

Results. Among a total of 297 registered osteosarcoma patients, six with synchronous (2.0%) and 10 with metachronous (3.4%) skeletal osteosarcomas were identified. All tumors were of high-grade malignancy. Treatment at the time of the first osteosarcoma diagnosis was in most cases wide resections and multi-agent chemotherapy according to international protocols, whereas

the treatment for metachronous tumors was individualized and in general much less intensive. One patient was diagnosed with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, two other individuals may be suspected to have the same syndrome, and yet another patient had previously been treated for a bilateral retinoblastoma. Thirteen patients are dead, 11 from metastatic PXD101 nmr osteosarcoma, one from myelodysplastic syndrome, and one from wound infection and methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity; whereas three patients are still alive with no evidence of osteosarcoma. Conclusions. The prognosis for patients with synchronous and metachronous skeletal osteosarcoma is poor. However, because long-term survival is seen, aggressive treatment to selected cases, e. g., patients with an osteosarcoma predisposing syndrome

and/or late occurring metachronous tumours, is justified. Revealing a possible clonal relationship between these tumors, e. g., by karyotyping, may be of interest for estimating URMC-099 prognosis and guide therapy intensiveness.”
“Object. Because of the anatomical complexity of the paraclinoid region, the surgical treatment of aneurysms arising in the C(6) segment of Alvocidib the internal carotid artery is extremely challenging. The authors’ aim in this study was to describe the extended clinical follow-up and assess the short-term and long-term effectiveness of surgical treatment for these aneurysms, focusing on the clinical outcome and degree of aneurysm occlusion and recurrence.\n\nMethods. The authors retrospectively analyzed

the clinical records for patients treated surgically between 1973 and 2004 at the University of Rome, “La Sapienza.” Aneurysms were classified into the following 3 groups according to the site where they arose: the anteromedial, anterior or anterolateral, and posteromedial wall of the C(6) segment.\n\nResults. Of the 108 aneurysms in 104 patients treated, 63 (58%) were large or giant. Eighty-eight aneurysms in 84 patients were clipped, 16 underwent a high-flow bypass, 2 were trapped, 1 was wrapped, and 1 was left untreated. The mean follow-up was 126 months; 47 patients had a follow-up of > 10 years. Of the 88 aneurysms that were clipped, 6 (6.8%) had an incomplete occlusion that required an immediate reoperation in 1 case and at 2 years in another. Overall 6 patients (5.8%) had surgery-related permanent complications.\n\nConclusions.

When breathing 32% O-2, HApNorm male rats had a stronger decrease

When breathing 32% O-2, HApNorm male rats had a stronger decrease of minute ventilation than HACont. HApNorm rats had a marked tendency toward longer survival throughout the study. GW4869 We conclude that exposure to ambient hypoxia during postnatal development in HA rats has deleterious consequences on acclimatization to hypoxia as adults.”
“Established approaches for analyzing meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy model the bivariate distribution of the observed pairs of

specificity Sp and sensitivity Se, thus accounting for across-study correlation. However, it is still a matter of debate how to define a summary ROC (SROC) curve. It was recently pointed out that the SROC curve is in principle unidentifiable if only one (Sp, Se) pair per study is known. We evaluate an alternative approach, modeling the study-specific ROC curves based on the assumption of linearity in logit space. A setting is considered in which the pair (Sp, Se) that is selected for publication in a particular study maximizes a weighted Youden index lambda Se+(1-lambda) Sp with a given weight lambda. This leads to a fixed slope (1-lambda)/lambda of the ROC curve in (1-Sp, Se), equivalent to a slope of (1-lambda) Sp(1-Sp)/(lambda Se(1-Se)) for the corresponding straight line in logit space. While the slope depends

on the variance ratio of the underlying distributions, the intercept is a function of the mean difference. Fosbretabulin chemical structure Our approach leads in a natural way to a new, model-based proposal for a summary

ROC curve. It is illustrated using an example from the literature. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objective To evaluate early fetal growth and the biomarkers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), in relation to preterm delivery\n\nMethods A cohort study of 9450 singleton pregnant women who attended the prenatal screening program at Aarhus University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2007, was conducted PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were measured in the first trimester. Early fetal growth was estimated by (GA(20) – GA(12))/Days(calendar), where FDA-approved Drug Library GA(12) reflects the gestational age in days calculated from the crown-rump length at a 12-week scan, GA(20) reflects the gestational age in days calculated from the biparietal diameter at a 20-week scan, and Days(calendar) is the number of calendar days between the two scans.\n\nResults Low PAPP-A and low free beta-hCG were significantly associated with preterm delivery (<37 weeks) The association was even stronger when low PAPP-A and slow early fetal growth were combined, resulting in an adjusted odds ratio of 3 8 (95% CI, 1 6-8 7) Fast early fetal growth. but neither high PAPP-A nor high free beta-hCG, was significantly associated with preterm delivery.

Further testing indicated that the patient daily living item was

Further testing indicated that the patient daily living item was positively correlated with the Resource Utilisation Groups Activities Entinostat clinical trial of Daily Living (r = 0.74) and negatively correlated with the Australian Karnofsky Performance Scale (r = 0.84). Prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa values also indicated adequate agreement between Palliative Care Problem Severity Score items and the patient physical item (0.48), psychological item (0.45) and caregiver well-being item (0.42).\n\nConclusions: Needs assessment not only facilitates the identification of people who have specific concerns or are dissatisfied with some aspect of their care,

hut also determines the person’s desire for assistance and involvement with services. The NAT is a highly acceptable and efficient tool that can be used by health professionals with a range of clinical expertise to identify individuals’ needs, thereby enabling a better match of interventions of specialist services more closely linked to needs. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background: A prospective, longitudinal analysis of injuries sustained by a large combat-deployed maneuver unit has not been previously performed.\n\nMethods: A detailed description of the

combat casualty care statistics, distribution of IKK inhibitor wounds, and mechanisms of injury incurred by a U.S. Army Brigade Combat Team during “The Surge” phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom was performed using a centralized casualty database and an electronic medical record BTSA1 system.\n\nResults: Among the 4,122 soldiers deployed, there were 500 combat wounds in 390 combat casualties. The combat casualty rate for the Brigade Combat Team was 75.7 per 1,000 soldier combat-years. The % killed

in action (KIA) was 22.1%, and the %died of wounds was 3.2%. The distribution of these wounds was as follows: head/neck 36.2%, thorax 7.5%, abdomen 6.9%, and extremities 49.4%. The percentage of combat wounds showed a significant increase in the head/neck region (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the extremities (p < 0.03) compared with data from World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. The percentage of thoracic wounds (p < 0.03) was significantly less than historical data from World War 11 and Vietnam. The %KIA was significantly greater in those soldiers injured by an explosion (26.3%) compared with those soldiers injured by a gunshot wound (4.6%; p = 0.003). Improvised explosive devices accounted for 77.7% of all combat wounds.\n\nConclusions: There was a significantly higher proportion of head/neck wounds compared with previous U.S. conflicts. The 22.1% KIA was comparable with previous U.S. conflicts despite improvements in individual/vehicular body armor and is largely attributable to the lethality of improvised explosive devices. The lethality of a gunshot wound in Operation Iraqi Freedom has decreased to 4.6% with the use of individual body armor.

Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated bi

Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase,

cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; click here the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate the crude extracts of Ichnocarpus frutescens (I. frutescens) for antiobesity selleck chemicals llc effect.\n\nMETHODS: Leaves of I. frutescens were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and their effect on viability

of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were evaluated. Based on this the apoptosis on preadipocytes was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase) leakage assays. Anti-adipogenesis was performed by oil red O (ORO) staining and free glycerol release in the medium of differentiated adipocytes.\n\nRESULTS: The hexane extract of I. frutescens (IFHE) inhibited cell viability in a time- and dose-related manner. An increased release of LDH, as a marker of membrane integrity,

was observed at a dose of 200 mu g/mL. The discontinuous DNA fragments on agarose gel electrophoresis showed the apoptotic effect of the IFHE. Morphological observations of cells stained with ORO showed a decrease in cellular lipid content at the concentrations tested compared to the induced control cells. In the experiment of lipolytic activity, treatment with IFHE enhanced glycerol secretion with the rates of approximately 28%, 55%, and 46% at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mu g/mL, respectively.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The observed properties selleck compound clearly revealed the medicinal property of I. frutescens in the treatment of obesity.”
“Objective To analyse the results of an action research process, the aim of which is to involve patients in fundamental psychiatric genomics research, against theoretical backgrounds that formulate a Dialogue Model for patient involvement.\n\nBackground Mixed views continue to exist about the value, appropriateness and potential of involving consumers and patients in basic medical research. There is a need to learn from practical examples.\n\nDesign An action research process was set up to facilitate and stimulate the involvement of a Dutch patient organization and a family organization in a psychiatric research consortium.

Methods: Stages 1/2: Interscalene catheter administration of

\n\nMethods: Stages 1/2: Interscalene catheter administration of ropivacaine was by a 10% incremental up-down sequential manner depending on the presence of recovery room pain in the previous patient. Stage 1: Ropivacaine (0.5% volume) was varied from 30 ml. Stage 2: Ropivacaine (20 ml, the ED (volume)(95) estimate from stage 1) concentration

was varied from 0.45%. Stage 3: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 30 ml of ropivacaine, 0.5% (“conventional dose”), or 20 ml of ropivacaine, 0.375% (the estimated ED(volume+concentration)(95) from stages 1/2). A postoperative elastomeric infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine (2 ml/h) was administered. Grip strength was measured in the recovery room and time to first pain at 24 h.\n\nResults: Stage 1 (n = 34): Ropivacaine

0.5% ED(volume)(50)/ED (volume)(95) (95% CI) estimates were 2.7/20.5 ml (2.4-9.5/-25.8). Stage 2 (n = 29): Ropivacaine BTSA1 datasheet 20 ml ED(concentration)(50)/ED(concentration)(95) (95% CI) estimates were 0.15/0.34% (0.13-0.30/0.29-0.43). The ED(dose)(50) was similar for stages 1/2 (13.5 vs. 30 mg), but the ED(dose)(95) was higher for stage 1 (102.5 vs. 68 mg). Stage 3 (n = 40): Satisfaction (0-10) was modestly higher for the new/lower dose (median [interquartile range] = 10 [10-10] versus R788 research buy 9 [8-10], P = 0.007). Pooled data regression analysis showed that increasing ropivacaine concentration increased grip weakness but not block duration.\n\nConclusions: Ropivacaine interscalene block requires a threshold volume and concentration, with concentration primarily determining motor block. When combined with continuous blockade, suprathreshold ropivacaine doses

do not significantly prolong primary block duration but may compromise patient satisfaction.”
“Aim: To determine whether acute or long-term exposure of the brain to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces activation of microglia, which normally respond rapidly to any change in their microenvironment.\n\nMethods: Using a purpose designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption P505-15 rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 60 min (acute) or on five successive days per week for 104 weeks (long-term). Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by immobilisation in the exposure module. Positive control brains subjected to a stab wound were also included to confirm the ability of microglia to react to any neural stress. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and representative regions of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus immunostained for ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba1), a specific microglial marker.