Epithelial cells also participate in the adaptive
immune response elicited by hRSV infection through the GDC-0068 nmr secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, a cytokine that promotes the activation of T cells. A recent study that used primary rat airway epithelial cells infected with hRSV and co-cultivated with DCs, showed that these latter cells displayed increased expression of MHC-II and CD86 on their surface.[47, 48] Blockade of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in this system decreased significantly the expression of both maturation markers. It has also been described how DCs infected with hRSV up-regulate the expression of molecules that promote Th2 polarization as represented in Fig. 2,[36, 49] such as thymus- and activation-regulation chemokine and OX40 ligand. These data suggest that epithelial cells infected with hRSV contribute to the nature of T-cell differentiation through the modulation of DCs. The respiratory
disease caused by hRSV begins with viral replication in the nasopharynx. The spread from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract takes place possibly through the direct AZD0530 purchase spread along the respiratory epithelium and/or the aspiration of nasopharyngeal secretions. Spreading from cell to cell is also common for hRSV by means of the induction of cell fusion and syncytia formation (Fig. 2). Another mechanism proposed to explain the spread of hRSV in lungs is the infection of macrophages that migrate to the
lower respiratory tract. Evidence supporting this mechanism consists of the detection of infected alveolar macrophages in vivo and the infection of monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. During the first days of hRSV infection, patients show mild compromise of the upper respiratory tract, presenting signs such as cough and low-grade fever. The signs of disease in the lower respiratory tract include tachypnoea, wheezing, dyspnoea Fenbendazole and retractions of the chest wall.[50, 52] During hRSV bronchiolitis, the ciliated epithelial cells are destroyed and in severe cases an extensive bronchiolar epithelial necrosis is observed. Severe cases of hRSV infection included peribronchiolar mononuclear cell infiltrates accompanied by submucosal oedema and bronchorrhoea. This phenomenon leads to bronchiolar obstruction with irregular atelectasis and areas of compensatory emphysema. Also, pneumonitis can occur when the alveoli become filled with fluid. In cases of milder bronchiolitis, the infection affects mostly lower airways, with peribronchiolar and interstitial inflammation. In addition to the multiple deleterious effects of hRSV in the airways, during the last decade several reports have provided evidence for an association between hRSV infection and alterations in other tissues, such as the heart, liver and brain.