Epithelial cells also participate in the adaptive


Epithelial cells also participate in the adaptive

immune response elicited by hRSV infection through the GDC-0068 nmr secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, a cytokine that promotes the activation of T cells.[46] A recent study that used primary rat airway epithelial cells infected with hRSV and co-cultivated with DCs, showed that these latter cells displayed increased expression of MHC-II and CD86 on their surface.[47, 48] Blockade of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in this system decreased significantly the expression of both maturation markers.[47] It has also been described how DCs infected with hRSV up-regulate the expression of molecules that promote Th2 polarization as represented in Fig. 2,[36, 49] such as thymus- and activation-regulation chemokine and OX40 ligand.[47] These data suggest that epithelial cells infected with hRSV contribute to the nature of T-cell differentiation through the modulation of DCs. The respiratory

disease caused by hRSV begins with viral replication in the nasopharynx.[50] The spread from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract takes place possibly through the direct AZD0530 purchase spread along the respiratory epithelium and/or the aspiration of nasopharyngeal secretions.[13] Spreading from cell to cell is also common for hRSV by means of the induction of cell fusion and syncytia formation (Fig. 2). Another mechanism proposed to explain the spread of hRSV in lungs is the infection of macrophages that migrate to the

lower respiratory tract. Evidence supporting this mechanism consists of the detection of infected alveolar macrophages in vivo and the infection of monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro.[51] During the first days of hRSV infection, patients show mild compromise of the upper respiratory tract, presenting signs such as cough and low-grade fever. The signs of disease in the lower respiratory tract include tachypnoea, wheezing, dyspnoea Fenbendazole and retractions of the chest wall.[50, 52] During hRSV bronchiolitis, the ciliated epithelial cells are destroyed and in severe cases an extensive bronchiolar epithelial necrosis is observed. Severe cases of hRSV infection included peribronchiolar mononuclear cell infiltrates accompanied by submucosal oedema and bronchorrhoea. This phenomenon leads to bronchiolar obstruction with irregular atelectasis and areas of compensatory emphysema. Also, pneumonitis can occur when the alveoli become filled with fluid. In cases of milder bronchiolitis, the infection affects mostly lower airways, with peribronchiolar and interstitial inflammation. In addition to the multiple deleterious effects of hRSV in the airways, during the last decade several reports have provided evidence for an association between hRSV infection and alterations in other tissues, such as the heart, liver and brain.

0±1 2 mm, while that for the control strain was 18 5±0 4 mm This

0±1.2 mm, while that for the control strain was 18.5±0.4 mm. This indicates that find more the overexpression of Spx has little effect on

the adaptation of S. epidermidis to diamide. To further confirm this, we extracted the RNA from WT and the spx-overexpressing strain, and determined the transcription level of trxB (encoding thioredoxin reductase and associated with thiol homeostasis). The transcription level of trxB was induced remarkably through the overexpression of Spx in B. subtilis, and decreased in both B. subtilis and S. aureus spx mutants. Consistent with our phenotypic observation, no significant difference of the trxB transcriptional level was found between the spx-overexpressing strain and WT. In addition, we found that the overexpression of Spx has little effect on the stress response of S. epidermidis to ethanol or hydrogen peroxide (data not shown). Spx is a conserved protein in low-G+C-content Ibrutinib price gram-positive bacteria. Its cellular level is controlled by ClpP protease. In both B. subtilis and S. aureus, Spx functions as a novel type of transcriptional regulator, and was proved as a substrate of ClpP protease (Nakano et al., 2002, 2003b; Pamp et al., 2006). Many bacterial functions are regulated by

Spx, such as competence, thiol homeostasis and biofilm formation (Zuber, 2004; Pamp et al., 2006). We found a much higher level of Spx in the clpP mutant strain, suggesting that Spx is likely a substrate of ClpP protease in S. epidermidis. The spx-overexpressing plasmid was constructed by modification of the C-terminal of spx gene, which also supports this view. In S. aureus, Spx negatively regulates biofilm formation (Pamp et al., 2006). In our study, decreased biofilm formation was found in the S. epidermidis Spx-overexpressing Dolutegravir in vitro strain. The primary attachment and the PIA production were severely reduced in the Spx-overexpressing strain compared with WT, and the biofilm by the strain carrying the antisense spx plasmid was decreased compared with WT. The transcription of atlE was similar to WT in the Spx-overexpressing strain, indicating that Spx does not affect the primary attachment through inhibiting the transcription of atlE.

Olson et al. (2006) have previously found that PIA enhanced the adherence of S. epidermidis to several orthopedic prosthetic biomaterials, including zirconia, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and cobalt chromium, but had no impact on the primary attachment to polymethylmethacrylate and titanium. In our study, there was no notable difference in the level of the initial adherence between WT and the isogenic PIA-negative strain under the selected experimental conditions. Thus, the mechanism behind the decreased initial attachment of the Spx-overexpressing strain needs further investigation. Decreased icaADBC transcription was found in the Spx-overexpressing strain of S. epidermidis, indicating that Spx affects PIA production by regulating the transcription of icaADBC. In S.

All viruses belong to the Ad5 serotype On day 7, cultured DC wer

All viruses belong to the Ad5 serotype. On day 7, cultured DC were harvested, replaced at 1 × 106 cells/ml in serum-free RPMI 1640, and infected with adenoviruses at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) for 2 h (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 MOI). Three hours later, complete RPMI 1640 were restored, and cells were cultured for another 2 days. DC were then washed

twice with complete medium before experiments. For pulsing with donor antigens, BN spleen cell lysate that was prepared by repeat freezing (5 min in dry ice–ethanol bath) and thawing (10 min in 37 °C warm bath) for 5 times, and added at 1/5 of DC/spleen cell (used to prepare lysate) ratio for the last 48 h of DC culture. Then, cells Alectinib cell line were harvested, analysed by flow cytometer, and used as stimulators for mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR). Uninfected and Adv-0-DC served as control. To analyse gene Y 27632 expression of IKK2dn, RNA from AdV-0-DC and Adv-IKK2dn-DC was treated with DNase and reversely transcribed to cDNA. For IKK2dn polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the following primers were used: sense, 5′-GGCCTTTGAGTGCATCAC-3′ and antisense, 5′-CTCTAGGTCGTCCAGCGT-3′. All samples were run in triplicate. To assess the overall cDNA content, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) served as a housekeeping gene control. The following pair of primers was used for GAPDH: sense, 5′-GGAAGGTGAAGGTCGGAGTC-3′ and antisense, 5′-GTAGAGGCAGGGATGATGTTC-3′; The PCR was performed in a GeneAmp PCR System

2700 (Applied Biosystems Inc, Foster City, CA, USA) thermal cycler by 30 cycles of denaturization (94 °C, 30 s), annealing (55 °C, 30 s), and extension (72 °C, 1 min). Flow cytometry.  Expression of DC surface antigens was analysed by EPICS ELITE flow cytometer (Beckman-Coulter, Montelukast Sodium Fullerton, CA, USA). Cell staining was performed as previously reported [16]; briefly, cells were stained with FITC or PE-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibodies anti-rat MHC class II, CD80 or CD86 after blocking non-specific binding with 10% vol/vol normal serum. FITC- or

PE-conjugated isotype-matched irrelevant mAbs were used as negative controls (all from Serotec Corp). Mixed lymphocyte reaction.  To maintain immature condition of DC, 7-day-cultured Lewis DC were infected with 25-100 MOI of AdV-IKK2dn. Adv-0-infected DC were used as control. To determine the antigen-presenting capacity of DC in vitro, MLR was performed with mitomycin C (MMC, 25 mg/ml for 30 min)-inactivated DC from different MOI groups as stimulators and nylon wool-purified Lewis or NB splenic T cells as responders. In Lewis T cell as responder cell experiments, Lewis DC pulsed with BN spleen cell lysate were used as stimulators, and DC not pulsed with alloantigen were used as control. The stimulator used was 3 × 102, 1 × 103, 3 × 103, and 1 × 104. Cultures were established in triplicate in 96-well round-bottom microculture plates (200 ul/well with 1 × 106 T cells) and maintained in complete medium for 72 h in 5% CO2 at 37 °C. MTT (0.

21,88 The transplanted trophoblasts undergo autonomous terminal d

21,88 The transplanted trophoblasts undergo autonomous terminal differentiation in ectopic sites independent of the physiological state of pregnancy. They stimulate maternal antibody responses and attract T cells to the sites of transplantation and yet evade immediate destruction by the immune system of the recipients. The trophoblasts also maintain their endocrine capacity

and produce eCG.88 In addition to the characteristics that make the horse unique as a species in the study of pregnancy immunology, many advantages offered by commonly used animal models apply. The MHC of the horse has been well characterized using functional and genetic studies.89–94 Angiogenesis inhibitor Horses have been selectively bred for homozygosity at the MHC region, enabling the establishment of MHC-compatible and MHC-incompatible pregnancies to investigate the role of paternal antigens in maternal immune recognition.21 Advanced assisted reproductive techniques, such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer, are routinely used in horse breeding. Notably, embryo transfer is performed in thousands of horses

every year worldwide with high success rates,95 suggesting that the insemination-induced tolerance that plays a role in pregnancy in some species96 may be less important in others. Other more advanced techniques such check details as oocyte transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and nuclear transfer (cloning) are also successfully used in horse reproduction.97 These techniques are primarily used to generate genetically desirable offspring, but they can also be useful tools in understanding early reproductive events such as fertilization and conception. Recent advances in equine genomics and immunology have expanded opportunities for the study Exoribonuclease of pregnancy immunology at the mechanistic level. A 6.8X sequence of the equine genome has been determined

and extensively annotated.98 Multiple horse-specific expression microarrays have been developed and validated, allowing researchers to investigate the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously.99–102 Molecular advances have also facilitated the development of new horse-specific monoclonal antibodies103–106 and immune assay technologies.107 Our understanding of the mare’s immune responses during pregnancy has progressed substantially, but several critical questions still remain. Firstly, why do the chorionic girdle trophoblasts express such high levels of paternal MHC class I while invading the maternal endometrium? The horse is not unique in this respect – MHC class I expression can be observed in trophoblast populations of other species at various stages of placentation. However, the horse demonstrates the clearest evidence for maternal immune recognition of paternal alloantigens expressed by trophoblast. A proposed role for the expression of HLA molecules by human invasive extravillous trophoblasts is to confer protection from cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells.

, 2005), which posits that bacterial biofilms associated with chr

, 2005), which posits that bacterial biofilms associated with chronic infections are composed of multiple strains of a single species (as well as often being polymicrobial or polykingdom communities) and that real-time HGT among the component strains (and species) leads to the continuous generation of a cloud of new strains with a novel combinations

of genes, thereby providing the bacterial community with a means to thwart the adaptive immune response of the host. Bacterial HGT is defined as the movement of genes (almost always in a unidirectional manner) between two, often unrelated, bacterial GSK3235025 nmr cells. It is important to understand that the donor cell from which the horizontally transferred DNA arose does not have to be viable at the time of HGT, and in fact, is definitely not the case in two of the three major HGT mechanisms used by bacterial species. HGT mechanisms usually result in the IWR-1 nmr transfer of one or more relatively small blocks of donor DNA into the recipient cell and thus provide for only the partial replacement of the receiving bacterium’s chromosome. The mean sizes of horizontally acquired gene blocks for those species such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus that have been studied extensively are usually only between 1 and 2 kb (Hiller et al., 2007; Hogg et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2010), but larger horizontally

acquired regions of 50–100 kb in size are not uncommon. Detailed comparative whole chromosomal analyses among large numbers of strains of H. influenzae (Hogg et al., 2007) and S. pneumoniae (Table 1) have revealed that, on average, each strain contains between 200 and 400 insertions/deletions

(indels) throughout their chromosome relative to other strains of the species. Thus, each chromosome is highly mosaic with respect to the origin of its own component genes, and further, each strain’s chromosome is highly unique with respect to its gene possession oxyclozanide complement. In fact, gene possession differences among the strains of a species account for the vast majority of the genetic heterogeneity within a species and dwarf the number of allelic differences observed within genes (Hall et al., 2009). Exhaustive pair-wise comparisons among all of the genomically sequenced strains for each of the species H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and Gardnerella vaginalis reveal that there are 385, 407, 246, and 608 gene possession differences, respectively, on average between every pair of strains that has been sequenced within these species (Hiller et al., 2007; Hogg et al., 2007). The 12-strain G. vaginalis supragenome (pangenome) contains 2248 genes, of which only 719 are core, with the remaining 1529 genes being distributed (noncore) among the 12 strains. Thus, more than two-thirds of the species’ genes are found in only a subset of strains.

The differences of values between any CKD stages were analyzed by

The differences of values between any CKD stages were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: In all cases the kidneys shrank and cortical thickness was decreased as well as the brightness of the cortex was

increased significantly in association with the decrease in eGFR. In diabetic CKD patients, however, the correlation was weakened between long axial length of the kidney and eGFR. Moreover, long axial length between stage 3 and 4 did not differ in diabetic CKD patients. Conclusion: The morphometric analysis of kidney ultrasonography was quantitated in the present study, resulting in the close relationship between the changes in morphology and eGFR. In diabetic CKD patients, the kidney sizes are well preserved, providing a clue for the diagnosis of the original disease. BAL ZEYNEP1, TUTAL EMRE2, BAL UGUR3, ERKMEN UYAR MEHTAP4, GULIYEV ORHAN5, SAYIN BURAK6, SEZER SIREN7 find more 1Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Nephrology; 2Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Sotrastaurin manufacturer Nephrology; 3Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Cardiology; 4Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Nephrology; 5Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Nephrology; 6Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Nephrology; 7Baskent University of Medical School, Department of Nephrology Introduction: Mortality

from cardiovascular disease is high in maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD).There is a greatly increased incidence of sudden death for MHD patients .The QTc interval has been reported to be increased and to be associated

with high-risk ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. There is a direct evidence that in MHD patients increased effect of arterial wave reflections is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between QT intervals and pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the risk factors for arterial stiffness in MHD patients. Methods: Eligible 149 MHD patients were enrolled into the study. Electrocardiographic evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. A QTc interval greater than Pregnenolone 440 ms was considered abnormally prolonged. Patients with QTc interval < 440 ms at the beginning and end of the study was defined as Group A(n:48). Patients whose intial QTc interval were >440 ms and/or those whose QTc interval increased >440 at the end of the follow-up were defined as Group B (n:101). PWV were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Patients in Group B had significantly higher intitial and follow-up PWV values, compared to the patients in Group A (7.9 ± 2.8 m/sn to 8.2 ± 3.4 m/sn vs 6.8 ± 2.7 m/sn to 6.5 ± 2.1 m/sn ) values both at the beginning and end of the study (p2: 0.027, p < 0.045). Additionally administired equivalent vitamin D dose was significantly higher in Group A compared to Group B (4.1 ± 4.7 mcg/week vs 2.7 ± 3.2 mcg/week, p < 0.035).

As shown in

Fig 6A, as expected, we found that the prima

As shown in

Fig. 6A, as expected, we found that the primary Th17 clones (E0) had potent effector cell function promoting naïve CD4+ T-cell proliferation in the presence of OKT3, which is consistent with the results shown in Fig. 1E using CFSE dilution assays. Furthermore, we found that Th17 clones derived from the first and the second round of expansion also significantly increased the proliferation of naïve T cells, indicating that these Th17-cells retained immune-enhancing function. However, after the third cycle of stimulation, all the three clones (E3) strongly suppressed find more the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells, suggesting that these cells had become functional Tregs. Th1-C1, a CD4+ Th1-cell line serving as an effector T-cell control, increased the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells. In contrast, the naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg line, serving as a suppressive T-cell control, strongly inhibited the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells. We further extended this finding to the other additional Th17 clones. We observed that some Th17 clones were changed to suppressive cells

until Cyclopamine the fourth cycle of stimulation (E4) and some clones had suppressive activity starting from the second cycle of stimulation (E2) (data not shown). In addition, we determined whether the expanded Th0 cells from different expansion cycles following the same protocol used to expand Th17 cells could suppress the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells. As shown in Supporting IMP dehydrogenase Information

Fig. 4, we found that all Th0 cells (expanded and unexpanded) promoted the proliferation of another responding naïve CD4+ T cell in the presence of OKT3. These results indicate that Th17 clones can be converted into functional Tregs induced by TCR stimulation and expansion. To examine the mechanism by which expanded Th17 clones suppressed naïve CD4+ T cells through soluble factors or cell–cell contact manner, we next performed Transwell experiments 28. As shown in Fig. 6B, each of the three times expanded Th17 clones (E3), when cultured in the inner wells containing medium with OKT3 and purified APCs, failed to proliferate by themselves. Furthermore, only one of the E3-Th17 clones (E3-CTh17-18) partially inhibited the proliferative activity of naïve CD4+ T cells cultured in the outer wells containing OKT3 and purified APCs, whereas the remaining two clones did not exhibit this suppressive function. In addition, control Th1-C1 cells proliferated in the inner wells, whereas CD4+CD25+ naturally occurring Tregs did not proliferate. However, neither of these two controls inhibited the proliferation of naive CD4+ T cells in the outer wells separated by Transwell inserts. These results indicate that the suppressive activities of the Th17 cells after expansion are mediated through cell–cell contact dependent as well as soluble factor(s)-mediated mechanisms.

To be able to

judge if there is a correlation between age

To be able to

judge if there is a correlation between age and TREC levels in LPL, all results with undetectable TREC levels from both uninflamed controls and IBD patients were excluded and only those with a positive TREC value were included in the correlation analysis, irrespective of diagnosis. Similar to peripheral blood, no significant correlation was found between TREC levels in LPL and age of the individual (r = 0·084, P = 0·78, data not shown). Thus, the levels of TREC containing lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa are independent of the activity of the intestinal inflammation and increasing age has no or low influence on the levels of TRECs in IBD patients either in peripheral blood or in the intestinal mucosa (data not shown). These correlation analyses demonstrate that BMS-907351 concentration the elevated TREC levels selleck products seen in UC patients in the intestinal mucosa are not a result of age difference between IBD patients and the uninflamed controls. There are several lines of evidence demonstrating that T lymphocytes can develop in situ in the intestine [17,18]. As TRECs are formed during TCR gene rearrangement, the possibility that the high levels of TRECs seen in the inflamed mucosa in UC patients was due to extrathymic maturation could not be excluded. To establish that the increased levels of TRECs seen in the intestinal mucosa of UC patients stem from

T cells of thymic origin and not from progenitor T lymphocytes recruited from the bone marrow directly to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, we analysed the intestinal T lymphocytes for subpopulations of early lineage T cells, being CD16-CD19-CD2+CD5+CD7+CD3- using five-colour flow cytometry. The staining is restricted to LPL as the limited numbers of IEL retrieved in the isolation procedure was not sufficient to perform this analysis.

Resveratrol A representative dot plot demonstrating the gating on CD16-CD19-CD2+ lymphocytes and subsequently on CD5+CD7+ and CD3low/− lymphocytes is shown (Fig. 4a). Figure 4b summarizes the data from LPL from uninflamed controls and IBD patients and demonstrate that the frequency of early T cell progenitors is similar in the two groups. To further exclude enhanced extrathymic maturation in IBD patients we also analysed the expression of mRNA encoding one of two subunits of the heterodimeric RAG protein participating in the initial process of TCR gene rearrangement, RAG1, as well as the expression of pre-TCR-α mRNA, a surrogate, invariant TCR-α chain pairing with the rearranged TCR-β chain during T cell maturation. Both these genes are expressed transiently during T cell development, but not in mature T lymphocytes. RAG1 and pre-TCR-α mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR in intestinal mucosal biopsies, which includes mRNA from both IEL and LPL. The results demonstrated equally low or undetectable levels in both IBD patients (UC; n = 5, CD; n = 1) and controls (n = 7) (data not shown).

5,9,16,35,36 Once again, a range of cell surface receptors intera

5,9,16,35,36 Once again, a range of cell surface receptors interactions play an important role at this stage. As for DC–T interactions, CD40–CD40L are also important for T–B interactions, as a lack of CD40 expression on B cell prevents activation of B cells by T cells which, in turn, results in decreased Tfh cell numbers.15 In contrast, while CD28 seems to be important at the initial stages of CD4+ T cell activation it

selleck products does not seem to be as crucial for Tfh cell development at the later stages of T–B interactions.37,38 A recent study, however, reported that B7.2 expression on B cells was required for GC formation, suggesting the B7–CD28 interactions between T–B cells are important for the function of Tfh cells and the delivery of helper signals to the B cells.39 For the most part, however, another CD28 family member, namely ICOS, seems to be required at this later stage. Consequently, mice in which ICOS–ICOSL interactions are

disrupted, or patients with mutations in ICOS (which results in common variable immunodeficiency), have decreased Tfh cells.26,32,40,41 ICOSL is expressed widely on haematopoietic cells; however, mice that lack ICOSL expression on their B cells show decreased numbers of Tfh cells indicating that, at least in part, this ICOS–ICOSL signal is delivered by B cells.42 This requirement for ICOS signalling seems Ku 0059436 to depend on its ability to activate phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), as mice expressing a mutant ICOS molecule with defective PI3K activation41 or lacking the p110δ isoform of PI3K in T cells43 also show decreased Tfh cell generation. Several studies have demonstrated that ICOS signalling, via PI3K, is able to up-regulate Tfh cell-associated genes such as c-maf,

IL-4 and IL-21;40,41,43 however, it remains to be determined whether the primary role of ICOS signalling is to induce the differentiation of Tfh cells or simply to maintain those that have already formed. It Acetophenone has also become clear that the SLAM family of surface receptors play an important role in Tfh cell generation. The importance of these molecules in T–B interactions first came to light in patients suffering from the immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). XLP is caused by mutations in the gene encoding SAP (i.e. SH2D1A), which is a cytoplasmic adaptor molecule that signals downstream of the SLAM family of receptors. Patients with XLP, as well as gene-targeted mice that lack SAP expression, display a deficiency in T-dependent B cell responses.44,45 Furthermore, several groups have demonstrated that loss of SAP can result in decreased numbers of Tfh cells.9,20,46,47 Members of the SLAM family including SLAM itself, CD84 and NTBA (also known as Ly108 in the mouse) are expressed highly on both activated B cells and activated CD4+ T cells, including Tfh cells.8,9,11,20,47–50 As these receptors are homotypic receptors, this expression pattern allows for SLAM family interactions between T and B cells.

Due to the difficulties of diagnosis, several

authors hav

Due to the difficulties of diagnosis, several

authors have analysed risk factors suggestive of invasive candidiasis to identify patients at highest risk. Such patients may be potential candidates for preemptive antifungal therapy before becoming seriously ill. The extent AT9283 research buy of body site colonisation due to Candida species was recognised to be related with consequent invasive disease. The quantification of the colonisation was expressed as the Candida colonisation index. Based on the evaluation of independent risk factors predictive of invasive Candida infections, clinically relevant scores were evaluated in the last decade. Particularly, the Candida score that combines the clinical risk factors preceding surgery, total parenteral nutrition and severe sepsis with Candida multi-site colonisation can be considered a useful bedside scoring system to discern patients with mere Candida colonisation from patients with the

risk of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropaenic beta-catenin phosphorylation critically ill patient population. “
“The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in chronic asthma has been reported in various studies. However, no study has systematically evaluated the occurrence of Aspergillus hypersensitivity (AH) and ABPA in acute severe asthma (ASA). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of AH and ABPA in patients with ASA. All patients with ASA admitted to the respiratory intensive care unit (ICU) of this institute underwent a prospective evaluation for ABPA using Aspergillus skin test (AST) as a screening tool. Patients with positive AST were labelled as AH and were further investigated for ABPA. Patients with ASA were compared with historical control group of 755 outpatient bronchial asthma patients

previously reported. Of the 357 ICU admissions, 57 (43 females, 14 males; mean age 43.5 years) patients were admitted with a diagnosis of ASA. The Org 27569 occurrence of AH was 50.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38.3–63.4; 29/57 patients] whereas the prevalence of ABPA was 38.6% (95% CI 27.1–51.6; 22/57 patients) in patients with ASA. The occurrence of AH and ABPA was significantly higher in the ASA group compared with the outpatient bronchial asthma group (38.5% and 20.5%, respectively). The prevalence of serological ABPA (ABPA without central bronchiectasis) was also higher in the ASA group compared with the outpatient bronchial asthma group (45.4% vs. 23.9%). The occurrence of AH and ABPA is very high in patients with acute asthma admitted to a respiratory ICU. Furthermore, the occurrence of high percentage of serological ABPA calls for the use of AST as a routine screening tool for ABPA in all patients with acute asthma at discharge. “
“Many studies have described the adherence of Candida albicans to epithelial cells but little is known about Candida parapsilosis adhesion and its role in host cell surface recognition.