All authors have read and approved the final manuscript “

All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background An increasing set of data is shedding light on the role of microorganisms that have co-evolved with their hosts, including #AZD1480 ic50 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# humans [3]. They illustrate the high diversity of endosymbiotic forms among living organisms. Moreover the evidence of gene transfer between bacterial cells or viruses and eukaryotic cells supports the theory of symbiotic relationships as a major force driving evolution [4] and as a source of phenotypic complexity [5]. Multiple new symbionts are regularly discovered in the same host, which

can compete or cooperate [3, 6]. Normally, they play a role in host nutrition; defence against pathogens remains an underappreciated benefit of such associations,

both in invertebrates and vertebrates [7, 8]. Social insects are particularly concerned as they are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, due to their lifestyle, and have evolved several associations with microorganisms [9]. Endosymbionts are very common among insects, especially in those sucking plant sap, feeding on vertebrate blood for their entire life span, and those that eat wood and keratin. As they are all strict specialists in nourishment, it is assumed that endosymbionts play a role in providing complementary elements absent from these restricted diets. Camponotus genus, carpenter ants, have Bcl-2 inhibitor established an association with intracellular endosymbionts Blochmannia, a taxon of γ-Proteobacteria, found in all Camponotus species studied hitherto Montelukast Sodium [10]. The bacteria live

within specialized cells, the bacteriocytes. The function of the endosymbionts is not fully elucidated but their role as dietary complement suppliers has been pointed out after the genome sequence analysis of two Blochmannia species. The bacteria is probably able to supply nitrogen and sulphur compounds to the host [11–13]. Moreover, bacteria elimination using antibiotic treatment is deleterious and chemically defined diets can complement bacteria suppression [2, 14] demonstrating the necessary nutritional role of bacteria. However, the presence of Blochmannia in omnivorous Camponotus species suggests that bacteria may also have other functions beneficial to the ants. Some studies have suggested that Blochmannia may play a more important role during the colony founding phase and growth rather than in adult worker maintenance [15] or may play a role in pheromone production [16]. Microbes that forms chronic infections in a host lineage may evolve to promote host survival or benefits to its host, as this will help to maintain its immediate ecological resource [17]. In this context, secondary endosymbionts can provide hosts with defences against parasites, beyond nutritional advantages [18, 19]. So far, no similar example with primary endosymbionts has been reported.

The measured D

The measured D AR-13324 in vivo values were found to be 7.27 × 10-8 and 1.09 × 10-7 cm2.s-1 for the PPy nanotube structure formed after 2- and 4-h etching, respectively, which is at least an order of magnitude higher than for the PPy films in 2-D porous structure [45]. These data show that homogenous transport dynamics of charge-compensating anions in the electrolyte is generally fast for 3-D PPy nanotubes especially for open interconnected PPy nanotubes formed after 4-h etch. Figure 8 Randles-Sevcik plots of PPy nanotube electrodes after 2- and 4-h etching of ZnO nanorod core. Specific capacitance C SV calculated from the CV plots using Equation 1 at different scan rates is plotted in Figure 9 for both ZnO nanorod core-PPy

sheath and PPy nanotube electrodes represented by 0-, 2-, and 4-h ZnO core etch times. The true faradic specific capacitance

due to redox processes measured at low scan rates increases dramatically when the PPy nanostructure transforms from core-sheath to nanotube. Thus, ion diffusion process in PPy nanotube structure is kinetically faster. At higher scan rates (≥50 mV.s-1), the specific capacitance on structure transformation shows moderate increase at best for electrode with open pore PPy nanotube structure obtained after a 4-h ZnO core etch. Limiting kinetics for ion diffusion is the same for PPy sheath and nanotube structures. Figure 9 Specific areal capacitance at different scan rates for ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath PPy and PPy nanotube electrodes. Impedance spectroscopy GSK2118436 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is extensively used

to elucidate the electrical characteristics of the electrode material and its interface with the supporting electrolyte. Frequency response of the real and imaginary impedance of the pseudocapacitive ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath electrode with 1 M lithium perchlorate electrolyte was studied. Impedance of the electrode is a complex quantity and the extracted Atazanavir data are plotted as real (Z′) versus imaginary (Z″) impedance representing the Nyquist plot. Figure 10 shows the Nyquist plot of the as-deposited ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath electrode in the frequency domain 0.1 MHz to 0.01 Hz and the inset shows expanded view in the high- and mid-frequency region. The capacitive component is reflected in the rapidly increasing imaginary impedance (Z″) at lower frequencies. The high-frequency real impedance (Z′) characterizes the bulk electrode and interfacial resistive properties of the electrode-electrolyte system. These parameters calculated from the impedance plots are shown in Table 1. Instead of the characteristic whole semicircle, the high-frequency Nyquist plot degenerated into an arc segment. This suggests that contribution to the bulk electrode-electrolyte PF-02341066 research buy resistance is mainly from the ZnO-PPy interface barrier due to polarization effect of the nanostructured electrode and negligible electrolyte resistance.

Figure 5 Analysis of BsaN box requirements for transcription

Figure 5 Analysis of BsaN box requirements for transcription activation by BsaN/BicA. The ability of BsaN/BicA to directly activate the expression of truncated promoters #Nutlin3a randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# was examined by providing regulatory genes in trans and measuring β-galactosidase activities arising from the expression of transcriptional promoter-lacZ fusions in E. coli DH5α. The top sequence of each gene includes the intact promoter region; sequence 1 is

deleted up to the BsaN box; sequence 2 also includes a 6 nucleotide deletion of the BsaN box. Effect of BsaN/BicA on the expression of A. PbicA-lacZ fusion, B. PvirA-lacZ fusion and C. Ps1518-lacZ fusion; Ps1518 denotes the promoter region of BPSS1518. Effect of BsaN/BicA on the expression of D. PbprD-lacZ fusion and E. PbopA-lacZ fusion. BprP directly activates bsaN and bsaM In the hierarchical control of T3SS3 and T6SS1 expression, BspR was suggested to activate the expression of bprP [14]. Previously, BprP was shown to bind sequences

upstream of bsaM and bsaN (refer to Figure 2C for gene location) [14], suggesting that it directly activates their transcription. bsaN is the first orf of the putative operon that encodes structural components of T3SS3 (Figure 2C) and is divergently transcribed from bsaM. To better understand how bsaN expression itself is controlled, we examined the relationships to its upstream regulators BspR and BprP using the LacZ fusion assay as described previously [8]. Plasmids with either bspR or bprP under find more arabinose induction control were introduced into E. coli containing plasmids with either a bsaN-lacZ fusion or a bsaM-lacZ fusion. A bprP-lacZ fusion served as control for BspR regulation. The ability of BspR and BprP to directly activate bsaN-lacZ, bsaM-lacZ and bprP-lacZ expression was determined by measuring β-galactosidase activity. As

expected, BprP activated both the bsaM and bsaN promoters click here in E. coli (Figure 6A, B). The presence of bprQ, a gene immediate downstream from bprP, had no effect on the activity of BprP. Furthermore, BprP did not activate its own promoter in E. coli (data not shown). However, BspR was not able to activate the promoter of bprP demonstrating that this regulator is not active in E. coli or that additional factors are required for activation (Figure 6C). Figure 6 Activation of bsaM and bsaN promoters by BprP in E. coli. The ability of BprP to directly activate the expression of promoters in the presence and absence of BprQ was examined by providing the bprP and bprQ genes in trans and measuring β-galactosidase activities arising from the expression of transcriptional promoter-lacZ fusions in E. coli DH5α. A. Effect of BprP and BprQ on the expression of PbsaN-lacZ fusion. B. Effect of BprP and BprQ on the expression of PbsaM-lacZ fusion. C. Effect of BspR on the expression of PbprP-lacZ fusion. *p < 0.05.

The response to OGAs with DPs of 5 (✶),

The response to OGAs with DPs of 5 (✶), BX-795 price 7 (□), and 8 (∆) was slightly stronger but still small. But for OGAs whereof the DP exceeded 8 (○), a clear oxidative burst reaction was observed. This indicated the largest OGA fraction as elicitor of the non-host plant defense against X. campestris pv. campestris. Figure 11 Oxidative burst reaction in homologous C. annuum suspension cell cultures after elicitation with OGAs of a DP exceeding 8. A fraction of isolated OGAs, which had a DP of at least 8, was able to elicit

a strong oxidative burst reaction in heterologous N. tabacum suspension cell cultures (Figure 10). Now this OGA fraction was tested in homologous C. annuum suspension cell cultures. Samples were added to the C. annuum culture to a

final concentration of 5 mg/ml (○). A negative control contained only water (♦). Once more this OGA fraction evoked a strong oxidative burst, similar to the reaction in N. tabacum. These observations show that OGAs with a DP of at least 8 that were generated by an X. campestris pv. campestris culture from co-incubated C. annuum cell wall material are selleck a powerful endogenous elicitor. To further verify the role of the TonB system core genes and particular exbD2 in generating the OGA DAMP, we resumed analyzing the mutants deficient in these genes [64, 66]. Cell-free supernatants of X. campestris pv. campestris PF299 chemical structure cultivations that had been co-incubated with C. annuum cell wall material had been shown to induce oxidative burst reactions in suspension cell cultures of non-host plants (Figure 4), while the supernatant of an analogously cultivated mutant strain deficient in exbD2 evoked no oxidative burst in a non-host suspension cell culture (Figure 5). Now we tested the effect of

cell-free supernatants obtained from co-incubating X. campestris pv. campestris strains with pectin on non-host cell suspension cultures concerning their ability to induce oxidative burst reactions. Mutants deficient in all genes of the X. campestris pv. campestris TonB core system including exbD2 were tested in this approach, and turned out to be clearly affected in evoking oxidative burst reactions. The oxidative mafosfamide burst reactions in non-host suspension cell cultures were recovered when the disrupted genes were complemented specifically with complete copies of the respective genes (Additional file 4). The hydrogen peroxide concentrations measured in response to aliquots of cell-free supernatants from cultivations of the complemented mutants in the presence of pectin was at least at wild-type level. This clearly underlines that the genes of the bacterial TonB core system including exbD2 are involved in linking the bacterial response to the presence of pectin with a specific defense reaction of non-host plants. Discussion Most bacterial pathogens produce a wide variety of cell wall degrading enzymes like endoglucanases, cellulases, pectinases, hemicellulases and lyases. In case of X. campestris pv.

The truncation end points of the Deh4p were designed to end in ev

The truncation end points of the Deh4p were designed to end in every putative TMS or extra-membranous loops as predicted by the program SOSUI [14]. The end-points

of these fusion proteins and their relative locations are illustrated this website in Fig. 2. E. coli transformants, each carrying a plasmid expressing a fusion protein (pHKU1601 plasmid series) were shown to have similar growth rates in LB (data not shown). Moreover, the production of fusion proteins was confirmed with a color indicator plate containing X-Phos (5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate) and Red-Gal™ (6-Chloro-3-indolyl- β-D-galactoside) [33] (data not shown). This suggested that the presence of the plasmids or proteins was not affecting the general physiology of the cells. Figure 2 A predicted topology of Deh4p. A topological model of Deh4p derived from the SOSUI prediction ( The relative locations of the fusion reporters are indicated by numbers and colored residues. selleck Qualitative dual-reporters activities are shown as red-colored circles (the LacZ activity was at least 3-fold higher

than the PhoA activity), blue-colored hexagons (the PhoA activity was at least 3-fold higher than the LacZ activity), orange-colored circle (the LacZ activity was higher than the PhoA activity but less than 3-fold), and purple-colored hexagons (higher PhoA than LacZ activity but less than 3-fold). The twelve putative TMS are also indicated as numbers in circles. The conserved MFS signature motif of [RK]XGR [RK] is highlighted in yellow. E. coli cells carrying pHKU1601 series plasmids were permeabilized PJ34 HCl with chloroform and SDS and assayed for their PhoA and LacZ activities using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) and o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside (ONPG) as substrates, respectively. The enzymes activities were normalized using the highest activity as one (See Additional file 1 for the data used in the analysis). The relative enzymes activities are schematically shown in Fig. 3a. There is without doubt that the expression levels among the various constructs vary from one to another. The relative strength of

these two enzymes in a construct was expressed as a strength index which is the natural logarithm of the normalized activity ratio of PhoA/LacZ. The strength SB-715992 mw indexes of the constructs are shown as a bar-chart in Fig. 3b. A positive strength index indicates high PhoA activity and low LacZ activity while a negative value shows the reverse situation. Hence, when the strength indexes were sorted according to the end points of the truncated Deh4p, the presence of a TMS was implied each time the index reversed its sign. The absolute value of the index serves as a reliability indicator. If 75% of the reporters were properly localized, which is the recommended ratio for a reliable informative result [33], the normalized activity ratio for PhoA:LacZ would be 1:3 or 3:1. This ratio corresponds to a strength index of ± 1.1.

Similar to graphene, WO3 can be mechanically or chemically exfoli

Similar to graphene, WO3 can be mechanically or chemically exfoliated to provide fundamental layers. However, unlike Hormones inhibitor graphene, which does not have bandgap, Q2D WO3 has rather large bandgap, making Q2D WO3 nanoflakes more versatile as candidates for thin, flexible devices and potential applications in catalysis [6], optical switches [7] displays and smart windows [8], solar cells [9] optical recording devices [10] and various gas sensors [11]. It has become one of the most investigated functional semiconductor

metal oxides impacting many research fields ranging from condensed-matter physics to learn more solid-state chemistry [10]. However, despite great interest of the research and industrial communities to the bulk and microstructured WO3, nanoscaled Q2D WO3 with thickness less than ~10 nm has received relatively little attention so far compared LY3023414 molecular weight to its microstructured counterparts and to Q2D transitional metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te). In addition, last year’s reports on alternative transitional semiconductor oxide Q2D MoO3 have exhibited exceptional thickness-dependent

properties and the substantial increased of the charge carriers mobility (up to 1,100 cm2 V-1 s-1) in Q2D MoO3 [2, 12]. It was also recently proven for MoSe2 that the reduction of bandgap can be achieved through decreasing the thickness of Q2D nanoflakes down to monolayer [13]. Therefore, realization of WO3 in its Q2D form can further engineer the materials’

electrical properties, as quantum confinement effects in 2D form will significantly influence charge transport, electronic band structure and electrochemical properties [3]. More importantly, nanostructuring of WO3 can enhance the performance of this functional Q2D material revealing unique properties that do not exist in its bulk form [2]. The development of Q2D materials is generally a two-step process, the synthesis of the layered bulk material followed by the exfoliation process [14]. Although there is a wide range of controlled methods of synthesis available to produce different morphologies of WO3 nanostructures, such as microwave-assisted hydrothermal [15], vapour-phase deposition [16], sol-gel [17], electron-beam [18] and arc-discharge [19], synthesis of Q2D MG-132 concentration WO3 is a topic that is yet to be widely explored. For instance, in a recent report, it was demonstrated that one possible way of bandgap reduction in bulk WO3 is to increase its sintering temperature [20]. However, what is the most favourable sintering temperature for exfoliation Q2D WO3 nanoflakes remains largely unexplored. In this work, we present for the first time new distinguishing thickness-dependent electrical properties of Q2D β-WO3 obtained for nanoflakes with thickness below ~10 nm developed via two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method. These properties were mapped without damaging the sample by carefully controlling the sample-tip force.

Over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on pl

Over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on plasmids that harbour the antimicrobial resistance gene bla CMY-2, which encodes an AmpC-type beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes third-generation cephalosporins [11–13]. In Salmonella enterica, bla CMY-2 is frequently carried by IncA/C or IncI1 plasmids [11, 12, 14, 15]. In a previous study, we examined the genetic variation of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population isolated from human and food-animal sources from four geographic regions

in Mexico [16]. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Xba I macro-restriction showed two predominant genotypes, ST19 and ST213. ST19 has been THZ1 chemical structure reported worldwide and is the most abundant Typhimurium genotype in the MLST database [17], while ST213 has only been reported in Mexico. Clonal complex analysis supported ST19 as the founder genotype, while ST213 was determined to be a derived genotype replacing ST19. We found a non-random distribution of virulence and antimicrobial resistance accessory genes across chromosomal backgrounds, and several associations among core and accessory genetic markers were detected. First, the Salmonella virulence plasmid (pSTV) was found in ST19 strains, but not in ST213 strains. Second, the plasmid-borne bla CMY-2 gene was found

only MGCD0103 nmr in ST213 strains. Third, the most abundant integron, the integron profile one (IP-1; dfrA12, orfF and aadA2), was found only in ST213 strains. Fourth, the Salmonella learn more genomic island (SGI1) was found in a subgroup of ST19 strains carrying pSTV [16]. The general picture obtained from that study was a population composed of two main genotypes marked by the presence of different accessory genes. The emergence of the multi-drug resistant (MDR) ST213 genotype associated with resistance to expanded spectrum cephalosporins is Branched chain aminotransferase a public health threat in

Mexico where this clone has rapidly disseminated throughout certain regions, causing severe and fatal infections in infants [18]. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between the recently emerged genotype MDR ST213 and bla CMY-2 plasmids. ST213 isolates were analyzed by plasmid profiling, PCR replicon typing [19], plasmid Pst I restriction profiles [12, 20], Southern hybridization, plasmid PCR screening and sequencing of regions scattered throughout the IncA/C plasmids [8], and by their conjugation abilities. We found two divergent types of IncA/C plasmids: one composed of plasmids possessing or lacking the bla CMY-2 region and the other lacking bla CMY-2. We discuss our results in the context of epidemiological findings in Mexico, and we present evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origin of the two genetic types of IncA/C plasmids.

At high V/III ratio, the available AsH3 molecules are far more th

At high V/III ratio, the available AsH3 molecules are far more than enough for group III species, thus the excess AsH3 may act as impurity-free ‘morphactants’ and raise the Luminespib mw surface energy [17], leading to the suppression of QD formation. This effect becomes prominent with the increase of V/III ratio, finally causing the sudden decrease of QD density at V/III ratio of 200 (phase III). However, with further increase of V/III ratio, the QD density increases gently. The reasons are still not clear at this moment, but in this case, the partial pressure of group III species

becomes so low that the possibility of surface reconstruction, which is not detectable during MOCVD growth, may need to be considered. Further experimental works will be conducted to clarify this phenomenon. The PL measurements of selected samples were conducted Combretastatin A4 and the results are shown in Figure 3. Figure 3a shows the photoluminescence from an ensemble of GaAs/InAs QD (V/III ratio

= 50)/60 nm GaAs cap measured at 300 K using excitation at 514 nm. The ground state (labeled as GS) emission peak and the excited state (labeled as ES) emission peak are identified by fitting the PL spectra with two Gaussians. The full width at half maximum of the GS emission peak is 63 nm, indicating that the uniformity of the QDs should be further improved by optimizing other growth parameters. Low-temperature (77 K) μPL using excitation at 514 nm was measured for the ensemble of GaAs/InAs QD (V/III ratio = Selleckchem MK0683 35)/60 nm GaAs cap (Figure 3b). Docetaxel The emission peak at 966.8 nm indicates that the ensemble has single QD emission characteristics, suggesting that this growth approach can be used for the fabrication of single-photon devices. Figure 3 Results of PL measurements of selected samples. (a) Room-temperature PL spectrum of GaAs/InAs QD (V/III ratio = 50)/60 nm GaAs cap measured at 300 K. (b) The μPL spectrum of GaAs/InAs

QD (V/III ratio = 35)/60 nm GaAs cap measured at 77 K. Conclusions In conclusion, we have described the effects of the V/III ratio on the density and sizes of InAs QDs. Due to the effects of several competing mechanisms resulting from increasing AsH3 partial pressure on coverage, In adatom migration length and surface energy, which are the complicated behaviors of QD formation, are observed. The results also demonstrate that the densities of InAs QDs can be manipulated easily in a wide range from 105 to 1010 cm−2 by varying the V/III ratio. Although the initial PL studies show that the optical performance of InAs QDs should be further improved, this V/III ratio-dependent InAs QDs growth approach may prove very useful for the MOCVD growth of different QDs-based device structures due to its simplicity and reproducibility. Authors’ information LSL, YLL, and JPZ are PhD students at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. QQC and SCS are Master’s degree students at Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

All patients with acute abdominal pain that was diagnosed as perf

All patients with acute abdominal pain that was Hedgehog antagonist diagnosed as perforated peptic ulcer were enrolled in the study. A formal written consent was obtained on each case based on our institute ethical committee recommendations. Excluded from this study were those patients with concomitant bleeding from

the ulcer and evidence of gastric outlet obstructions. Patients with Boey risk score of 3 or more were excluded from laparoscopic interventions as they underwent a laprotomy approach. The Boey risk scoring system, propose by Boey et al. in 1987 [12], is well known for stratification of high risk patients in PPU. Also excluded were those with repeated upper abdominal operations, sever profound

shock, extreme age, bleeding tendency, or the RAD001 mw ulcer that was suspected to be malignant. The collected demographic data were age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists Association Score (ASA), presence of shock, White blood cell (WBC) count, Boey risk factor and co-morbidities of the patients. Major medical illness, preoperative shock, intra-operative findings such as the location and size of perforation, severity of abdominal cavity contamination were all reviewed. It was surgeon’s discretion to decide whether omental patch be added buy 7-Cl-O-Nec1 or not after the perforated ulcer was closed. Patients underwent the first aid supportive methods of not taking anything orally (NPO), the insertion of a naso-gastric tube for gastric decompression. Intravenous

fluids were initially administrated in the form of crystalloids (saline or ringer’s lactate solution). Intravenous antibiotics were given in the form of third generation cephalosporin’s as well as metronedazole. Routine laboratory tests were done including a complete blood counting (CBC) with differential leucocytes’ count; serum amylase and lipase were carried out to exclude acute pancreatitis. Moreover, all patients underwent abdominal x-rays to aid in diagnosing peritonitis. In cases where the X-rays were not conclusive; computed tomography (CT) was applied. Laparoscopy All procedures were Unoprostone performed by the same senior consultant surgeon. In brief, patient was placed in a 15–20_ reverse Trendelenburg position. The operating surgeon stands to the patient’s left side. The periumbilical region is the usual site for initial access; however, in 2 patients with previous midline incisions dictated the use of another “”virgin”" site. Carbon dioxide pneumo-peritoneum with the insufflations pressure of 14–15 mmHg was applied in most cases; yet, we have used lower levels (8–12 mmHg) due to concerns of hemodynamic compromise with higher pressures in those patients with delayed onset of symptoms.

Coloring depends on geographical origin of isolates: Asia (red),

Coloring depends on geographical origin of isolates: Asia (red), South America (light green), North America (dark green), Africa (yellow) and Europe (blue). Size of circles represents number of isolates with the corresponding ST. All connections were drawn. SLVs are connected via black, DLVs via dark grey, TLVs via grey and all connection with a higher level via light grey lines. (PDF 2 MB) Additional file 5: Figure S3: FullMST based on AA-MLST profiles of pubMLST dataset. Coloring depends on geographical origin of isolates:

Vadimezan mouse Asia (red), South America (light green), North America (dark green), Africa (yellow) and Europe (blue). Size of circles represents number of isolates with the corresponding pST. All connections were drawn. SLVs are AZD5582 chemical structure connected via black, DLVs via dark grey and TLVs via grey lines. (PDF 529 KB) References 1. Kaneko T, Colwell RR: Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay. J Bacteriol 1973,113(1):24–32.PubMedCentralPubMed 2. Joseph SW, Colwell RR, Kaper JB: Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic Vibrios. Crit Rev Microbiol 1982,10(1):77–124.PubMedCrossRef 3. Ellingsen AB, Jorgensen H, Wagley S, Monshaugen M, Rorvik LM: Genetic diversity among Norwegian Vibrio parahaemolyticus . J Appl Microbiol

2008,105(6):2195–2202.PubMedCrossRef 4. Baker-Austin C, Stockley L, Rangdale R, Martinez-Urtaza J: Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus : a European perspective. Environ Microbiol 2010,2(1):7–18.CrossRef 5. Su YC, Liu C: Vibrio parahaemolyticus : a concern of seafood safety. Food Microbiol 2007,24(6):549–558.PubMedCrossRef 6. Daniels NA, MacKinnon L, Bishop R, Altekruse S, Ray B, Hammond RM, Thompson S, Wilson S, Bean NH, Griffin PM, Slutsker L: Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections in the United States, 1973–1998. ADAMTS5 J Infect Dis 2000,181(5):1661–1666.PubMedCrossRef 7. Okuda J, Ishibashi M, Hayakawa E, Nishino T, Takeda Y, Mukhopadhyay

AK, Garg S, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Nishibuchi M: Emergence of a unique O3:K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Calcutta, India, and isolation of strains from the same clonal group from Southeast Asian travelers arriving in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 1997,35(12):3150–3155.PubMedCentralPubMed 8. Bag PK, Nandi S, Bhadra RK, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Nishibuchi M, Hamabata T, VX-680 in vitro Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Nair GB: Clonal diversity among recently emerged strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 associated with pandemic spread. J Clin Microbiol 1999,37(7):2354–2357.PubMedCentralPubMed 9. Chowdhury NR, Chakraborty S, Ramamurthy T, Nishibuchi M, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Nair GB: Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Emerg Infect Dis 2000,6(6):631–636.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 10. Nair GB, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Dutta B, Takeda Y, Sack DA: Global dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 and its serovariants. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007,20(1):39–48.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 11.