simplify the formulas for calculation, the Riccati-Bessel functions ψ l (p) and ξ l (p) are used. We can calculate the scattered field by using the boundary conditions and adding up the resulting wave vectors of the particle scattering leading to the scattering cross section C sca and the extinction cross section C ext: (4) (5) The absorption cross section C abs results as (6) The normalized OSI-027 mw cross sections Q – which we will show in the following – are calculated by dividing C through the particle area πr 2. The different modes and the separation of the electric and magnetic field is done by the individual calculation of a l and b l with l for any relevant number (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4,…). The scattering efficiency is defined as (7) 3D FEM calculations We solve Maxwell’s equations in full 3D with the finite element method (FEM) using the software package JCMwave, Berlin, Germany . The FEM is a variational method whereby a partial differential equation is solved by dividing up the entire simulation domain into small elements. Each element provides local solutions which, when added together, form
a complete solution over the entire domain. Due to the inherently localized nature of the method, different regions of space can be modeled with different accuracy. This allows demanding regions like metallic interfaces to be calculated with a high accuracy without compromising on total computation time. The time harmonic ansatz along with the assumptions of linear, isotropic media and Anlotinib price no free charges or currents allows Maxwell’s equations to be written as a curl equation: (8) Where ϵ and μ are the permittivity and the permeability of the medium respectively, E is the electric field vector, and ω
is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. This equation can be solved numerically by discretization of the curl operator (∇×) using the finite element method. After the discretization, a linear system of equations needs to be solved to calculate the field scattered by the Epoxomicin cost geometry in question. During our calculations, the finite element degree and grid discretization were refined to ensure a convergence in the scattering and absorption cross sections to the 0.01 level. For Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase the calculation of normalized scattering and absorption cross sections, the Poynting flux of the scattered field through the exterior domain and the net total flux into the absorbing medium were used. The normalized cross section is then: (9) Where Φ is the scattered or absorbed flux, Φ I is the incident flux, and C N.P. and C C.D. are the cross-sectional area of the nanoparticle and computational domain, respectively. The calculation of the angular far field spectrum is achieved by an evaluation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral.