simplify the formulas for calculation, the Riccati-Bes


simplify the formulas for calculation, the Riccati-Bessel functions ψ l (p) and ξ l (p) are used. We can calculate the scattered field by using the boundary conditions and adding up the resulting wave vectors of the particle scattering leading to the scattering cross section C sca and the extinction cross section C ext: (4) (5) The absorption cross section C abs results as (6) The normalized OSI-027 mw cross sections Q – which we will show in the following – are calculated by dividing C through the particle area πr 2. The different modes and the separation of the electric and magnetic field is done by the individual calculation of a l and b l with l for any relevant number (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4,…). The scattering efficiency is defined as (7) 3D FEM calculations We solve Maxwell’s equations in full 3D with the finite element method (FEM) using the software package JCMwave, Berlin, Germany [22]. The FEM is a variational method whereby a partial differential equation is solved by dividing up the entire simulation domain into small elements. Each element provides local solutions which, when added together, form

a complete solution over the entire domain. Due to the inherently localized nature of the method, different regions of space can be modeled with different accuracy. This allows demanding regions like metallic interfaces to be calculated with a high accuracy without compromising on total computation time. The time harmonic ansatz along with the assumptions of linear, isotropic media and Anlotinib price no free charges or currents allows Maxwell’s equations to be written as a curl equation: (8) Where ϵ and μ are the permittivity and the permeability of the medium respectively, E is the electric field vector, and ω

is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. This equation can be solved numerically by discretization of the curl operator (∇×) using the finite element method. After the discretization, a linear system of equations needs to be solved to calculate the field scattered by the Epoxomicin cost geometry in question. During our calculations, the finite element degree and grid discretization were refined to ensure a convergence in the scattering and absorption cross sections to the 0.01 level. For Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase the calculation of normalized scattering and absorption cross sections, the Poynting flux of the scattered field through the exterior domain and the net total flux into the absorbing medium were used. The normalized cross section is then: (9) Where Φ is the scattered or absorbed flux, Φ I is the incident flux, and C N.P. and C C.D. are the cross-sectional area of the nanoparticle and computational domain, respectively. The calculation of the angular far field spectrum is achieved by an evaluation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral.

These features could be compared to the in vivo situation where t

These features could be compared to the in vivo situation where the ability of tumour cells to detach from the primary tumour, invade through the ECM, survive in the blood stream, and invade and form tumours at

secondary sites, leads to the formation of metastases. Therefore, we believe that Clone #3 represents an in vitro model of tumour cells with increased metastatic potential. In contrast Clone #8 appears to be a model of tumour cells with decreased metastatic potential, showing decreased invasion, increased adhesion, increased sensitivity to anoikis and VE822 reduced ability to grow and form colonies in anchorage-independent conditions. Integrins are involved in regulating growth, differentiation, and death by regulating the interaction between cell and ECM [7]. In pancreatic cancer, links have previously been established between increased invasion and decreased adhesion to ECM proteins in vitro and to high metastatic potential in vivo [27–29]. In general, the loss or gain of expression of individual integrins appears to be indirectly Tideglusib associated with malignant transformation and involved in tumour progression and metastasis.

Over expression of α5β1 in CHO cells demonstrated reduced malignancy [30], whereas α2β1 and α3β1 were expressed in non-neoplastic and fibroadenomas but were low or absent in highly invasive mammary carcinomas [31]. In our study, Clone #3 showed reduced expression of integrins β1, α5 and α6 compared to Clone #8, which correlates with the reduced adhesion to laminin and fibronectin, as integrin α5β1 is a receptor for fibronectin and α6β1 is a receptor for laminin [32, 26]. Integrin β1, α5 and α6 siRNA transfection in Clone #8 resulted in significantly increased motility and invasion through matrigel and fibronectin, and reduced adhesion to matrigel and fibronectin. Loss of integrin β1 did not alter Erastin mouse the invasion or adhesion of Clone #8 cells to laminin, but loss

of α6 significantly reduced adhesion to laminin. These results suggest that inhibition of integrin β1 alone is not sufficient to block adhesion to laminin. Other integrin complexes such as α6β4 [33] could control laminin-mediated adhesion/invasion in these cells. Gilcrease et al. [34] showed that α6β4 cross linking in suspended non adherent breast cancer cells resulted in cell surface clustering of EGFR, increasing EGFR-mediated activation of Rho in response to EGF, which may lead to tumour cell Selleckchem EPZ5676 migration. Knockdown of the expression of integrin β1 in Clone #8 also revealed a more anoikis resistant phenotype. Disruption of β1 integrin complexes has previously implicated in induction of anoikis [35–37].

Time/Density curve (c) shows a typical contrast enhancement patte

Time/Density curve (c) shows a typical contrast enhancement pattern in residual tumour area with fast and early wash-in, a plateau trend and a slow, progressive and uniform wash-out (curve 3). Color maps superimposed

on gray-scale images (d, Blood Volume, BV; e, Blood Flow, BF) of right kidney show high colour encoding in corresponding residual tumour area: (d) BV (mean, 140,68 ± 24,48 mL/100 g wet tissue/min), (e) BF (mean, 562,72 ± 97,96 mL/100 g wet tissue). Table 1 Quantitative parameters of contrast enhancement kinetic between responsive cryoablated area and local tissue recurrence. Parameters Tumor recurrence* [normal omolateral cortex] Cryoablated area* [normal omolateral cortex] Time of arrival, TA (s)       14,3 15,96 ± 1,29   [13, 8] [14,85 ± 0,65] Time to peak, TTP (s)       38,3 59,13 ± 2,87   [39]   Wash-in rate (1/s)       11,52 0,66 Selleck AZD2014 ± 0,41   [9, 41] [7,04 ± 1,35] Peak contrast enhancement (HU)       300,3 60,91 ± 14,85   [374,18] [281,77 ± 37,6] *Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Table 2 Perfusion parameters in recurrent tumor and successfully cryoablated area compared to normal ipsilateral renal ARRY-438162 cost VS-4718 cortex value (in square brackets). Parameters

Recurrent tumor [normal omolateral cortex]* Cryoablated area [normal omolateral cortex]* Blood Volume (BV; mL/100 g wet tissue)       140,68 ± 24,48 5,39 ± 1,28   [116,14 ± 14,27] [117,86 ± 12,53] ID-8 Blood Flow (BF; mL/100 g

wet tissue/min)       562,72 ± 97,96 69,92 ± 20,12   [393,8 ± 59,01] [392,28 ± 117,32] Permeability- Surface Area Product (PS; mL/100 g wet tissue/min)       73,52 ± 28,1 16,66 ± 5,67   [41,88 ± 19,89] [81,68 ± 22,75] Mean Transit Time (MTT; sec)       15 ± 0,1 25,35 ± 4,3   [17,69 ± 0,4] [18,02 ± 3,6] *Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Ablation responders (n = 13) showed a peak contrast enhancement (PCE; HU) in cryoablated area after medium contrast administration with a mean-value of 60,91 ± 14,85 [vs. 281,77 ± 37,6 in ipsilateral normal renal cortex]. In the same group the evaluation of kinetic parameters [vs. ipsilateral renal cortex] showed a time of arrival (TA; sec) of 15,96 ± 1,2 [14,85 ± 0,65], a time to peak (TTP; sec) of 59,13 ± 2,87 [49,4 ± 4,4], a wash-in-rate (WIR; 1/s) of 0,66 ± 0,41 [7,04 ± 1,35] (Table 1). Furthermore in the same cases, a variable trend of reduction in BF, BV, and PS values and increase in MTT values were observed in tumor ablated area compared to normal renal cortex (Table 2). In particular the BV, BF and PS mean values sampled in the cryoablated area were lower than in normal renal cortex (respectively: 5,39 ± 1,28 mL/100 g vs 117,86 ± 12,53 mL/100 g; 69,92 ± 20,12 mL/100 g/min vs 392,28 ± 117,32 mL/100 g/min; 16,66 ± 5,67 mL/100 g/min vs 81,68 ± 22,75 mL/100 g/min).

(Cellmatrix, Osaka, Japan) The monoclonal (FN-15, F7387) and pol

(Cellmatrix, Osaka, Japan). The monoclonal (FN-15, F7387) and polyclonal (F3648) antibodies against FN and polyclonal antibody against laminin (L9393) were obtained from Sigma. The anti-mouse nidogen-2 (M-300, sc-33143) and anti-collagen type I (234168) antibodies were from Santa Cruz and Calbiochem, respectively. The anti-DNT monoclonal antibody

2B3 and anti-DNT polyclonal antibody were prepared as reported [4, 26]. Alexa 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, Alexa 546-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG, and Alexa 488-conjugated streptavidin were from Molecular Probes/Invitrogen. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated streptavidin was from Chemicon. DNT that is N-terminally Wortmannin price fused with hexahistidine was obtained as reported [27]. Sulfo-SBED, a trifunctional cross-linking reagent, was purchased from Thermo scientific. 5-carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester (5-FAM, SE) was obtained from Molecular Probes/Invitrogen. For conjugation, DNT was dialyzed against 0.1 M NaHCO3, pH 8.3, mixed with Sulfo-SBED or 5-FAM, SE at a molar ratio of 1:32, and incubated at room temperature for 30 min. After incubation, the unconjugated find more reagent was

removed by gel filtration with a PD-10 column (GE Healthcare). Immunofluorescent staining of DNT-treated cells MC3T3-E1, Balb3T3, and MRC-5 cells were seeded at 50,000 cells/cm2 in wells of a 24-well plate with cover PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 glasses and grown overnight. FN-null cells were cultured overnight on collagen-coated cover glasses in Cellgro-Aim V with or without 10 μg/ml of human FN. The next day, the medium was replaced with a fresh batch containing 2 μg/ml of DNT, 5-FAM-conjugated DNT (5-FAM-DNT) or SBED-conjugated DNT (SBED-DNT), and the cells were incubated for 15 min at 37°C. The cells were then fixed with 3% paraformaldehyde in Dulbecco’s modified phosphate-buffered saline (D-PBS (-)) for 10 min and treated with primary

antibodies for 1 h, and subsequently secondary antibodies for 30 min in the presence of 10% FCS. The cells were washed three times with D-PBS Methane monooxygenase (-) after each procedure. The cells were mounted in Fluoromount (Diagnostic BioSystems) and imaged with an OLYMPUS BX50 microscope controlled by SlideBook 4.0 (Intelligent Imaging Innovation, Inc.). Anti-DNT polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies were used at 10 μg/ml for DNT staining. FN, collagen typeI, laminin, and nidogen-2 were stained with the respective antibodies at concentrations indicated in the instruction manuals. Cross-linking of MC3T3-E1 cells with SBED-conjugated DNT Confluent MC3T3-E1 cells in a 10-cm dish were treated with 2.5 μg/ml of SBED-DNT at 37°C for 15 min and then exposed to UV light at 365 nm for 5 min. The cells were washed with D-PBS (-) twice and solubilized with D-PBS (-) containing 1% NP-40 and 1% protease inhibitor cocktail (Nacalai, Kyoto, Japan) at 4°C for 60 min.

The reduced pain level lasted up to 9 months after the third trea

The reduced pain level lasted up to 9 months after the third treatment [17]. It is unclear how fast and in what amount the small dosage of lignocaine diffuses through the peritoneum and reaches the blood after pertubation. In the above clinical study, serum samples were

therefore collected before and after the treatment for later analysis of lignocaine in serum. This observational study reports the serum concentration of lignocaine after pertubation of 10 mg lignocaine hydrochloride. The hypothesis is that the pertubated dosage of 10 mg lignocaine hydrochloride reaches the central circulation and gives rise to low systemic levels of lignocaine. 2 Methods 2.1 Study Design, Participants and Procedures A randomized, double-blind and controlled study was conducted PND-1186 cost to study click here the effect of pertubation with lignocaine (1 mg/ml, 10 ml) on dysmenorrhoea and quality of life. A total of 42 patients were included in the study, 24 of whom were randomized to active treatment and 18 to placebo. The methods of this trial have previously been described in detail [17]. The patients were recruited through advertisements and from the gynaecological outpatient unit at the three participating clinics in Stockholm, Sweden. The first patient was included in March 2007 and the last in November

2008. The main Tanespimycin in vivo inclusion criteria were presence of peritoneal or ovarian endometriosis why verified by laparoscopy and dysmenorrhoea, with a pain score of >50 mm on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The exclusion criteria included reduced patency in the fallopian tubes and the intention to achieve pregnancy during the forthcoming year. Detailed eligibility criteria for the study have been previously published [17]. Written informed consent was obtained before any study-related procedures, and the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines were followed. The procedure was approved by the Medical Products Agency in Sweden, 8

November 2006 (151:2006/56028) and after amendment, 12 December 2007 (151:2007/76934), as well as by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm, 10 January 2007 (2006/1416-32) and after amendment, 14 December 2007 (2007/1398-32). Before inclusion, the patients were scrutinized and tested concerning all criteria. Three treatments were given pre-ovulatory on cycle day 6–12 in three sequential menstrual cycles, since the effect on dysmenorrhoea increased after repeated treatments [7]. A thin plastic catheter (PBN-Medicals, Stenløse, Denmark) was inserted and cuffed in the cervical canal or in the caudal part of the uterine cavity; 10 ml of ringer-lignocaine 1 mg/ml (active treatment) or ringer acetate (placebo) was infused through the uterine cavity and pertubated into the peritoneal cavity.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2005, 242:101–108 PubMedCrossRef


FEMS Microbiol Lett 2005, 242:101–108.PubMedCrossRef

13. Brett PJ, Deshazer D, Woods DE: Characteristics of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei -like strains. Epidemiol Infect 1997, 118:137–148.PU-H71 mouse PubMedCrossRef 14. Smith MD, Angus BJ, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ: Arabinose assimilation defines a nonvirulent ARN-509 mouse biotype of Burkholderia pseudomallei . Infect Immun 1997, 65:4319–4321.PubMed 15. Tans-Kersten J, Huang H, Allen C: Ralstonia solanacearum needs motility for invasive virulence on tomato. J Bacteriol 2001, 183:3597–3605.PubMedCrossRef 16. Spurr AR: A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 1969, 26:31–43.PubMedCrossRef 17. Murashige T, Skoog F: A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 1962, 15:473–497.CrossRef 18. Chan YH: Biostatics 301. Repeated measurement

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Nature 2007,445(7127):533–536

Nature 2007,445(7127):533–536.PubMedCrossRef 8. Lee J, Jayaraman A, Wood TK: Indole is an inter-species biofilm signal mediated by SdiA. BMC Microbiol 2007, 7:42.PubMedCrossRef 9. Jakubovics AICAR NS, Gill SR, Iobst SE, Vickerman MM, Kolenbrander PE: Regulation of gene expression in a mixed-genus community: stabilized arginine biosynthesis in Streptococcus gordonii by coaggregation with Actinomyces

naeslundii. J Bacteriol 2008,190(10):3646–3657.PubMedCrossRef 10. Simionato MR, Tucker CM, Kuboniwa M, Lamont G, Demuth DR, Tribble GD, Lamont RJ: Porphyromonas gingivalis genes involved in community development with Streptococcus gordonii. Infect Immun 2006,74(11):6419–6428.PubMedCrossRef 11. Martin MJ, Herrero J, Capmatinib cell line Mateos A, Dopazo J: Comparing bacterial genomes through conservation profiles. Genome Research 2003,13(5):991–998.PubMedCrossRef 12. Kane MD, Jatkoe TA, Stumpf CR, Lu J, Thomas JD, Madore SJ: Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of oligonucleotide (50mer) microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res 2000,28(22):4552–4557.PubMedCrossRef 13. Seesod N, Nopparat P, Hedrum A, Holder A, Thaithong S, Uhlen M, Lundeberg

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NF, Menard-Szczebara F, Castagnet S, Feliers C, Keevil CW: Detection of Escherichia coli in biofilms from pipe samples and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007,73(22):7456–7464.PubMedCrossRef 18. Norton CD, LeChevallier MW: A pilot study of bacteriological population changes through potable water treatment and distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000,66(1):268–276.PubMedCrossRef Amisulpride 19. Rudi K, Tannaes T, Vatn M: Temporal and spatial diversity of the tap water microbiota in a Norwegian hospital. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009,75(24):7855–7857.PubMedCrossRef 20. Liu RH, Yang J, Pindera MZ, Athavale M, Grodzinski P: Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing. Lab on a Chip 2002,2(3):151–157.PubMedCrossRef 21. Ward MD, Quan J, Grodzinski P: Metal-polymer hybrid microchannels for microfluidic high gradient separations. European Cells and Materials 2002,3(2):123–125. 22. Grodzinski P, Yang J, Liu RH, Ward MD: A modular microfluidic system for cell pre-concentration and genetic sample preparation.

Majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influenc

Majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influence

on human physiology and nutrition and are crucial for human life [2–4]. Gut microbiota shapes the host immune responses [5]. The composition and activity of indigenous gut microbiota are of paramount importance in the health of individual and hence describing the complexity of gut flora is important for defining its effect on human health. The limited sensitivity of culture based method has been a Avapritinib mouse problem in the past for defining the extent of microbial diversity in human gut. Recently, the molecular methods used for studying MG-132 concentration the human gut flora have facilitated the accurate study of the human gut flora. Such studies showed that the human gut microbiota varies greatly with factors such as age, genetic composition, gender, diseased and healthy state of individual. [6–9]. Majority of the gut microbiota is composed of Lorlatinib cost strict anaerobes, which dominate the facultative anaerobes and aerobes by two to three orders of magnitude [10, 11]. Although there have been over 50 bacterial phyla described, the human gut microbiota is dominated by only two of them: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Cyanobacteria are present in minor proportions

[12, 13]. Studies have shown that the ratio of Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes changes during challenged physiological conditions such as obesity [14, 15], although other studies did not observe any change [16, 17]. Changes in Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio have

also been reported in other physiological conditions such as ageing and diabetes [18, 19]. Different human ethnic groups vary in genetic makeup as well as the environmental conditions they live in. The gut flora changes with genetic makeup and environmental factors and hence, it is necessary to understand the composition of gut flora of different Methane monooxygenase ethnic groups [20]. However, little effort has been put into understanding the composition of gut flora in Indian population. The physiology of Indian population is different from western population as suggested by YY- paradox and in turn the composition of gut microbes would be different [21]. Hence, in this study we explored the change in composition of gut microbiota in Indian individuals with different age within a family by using culture dependent and molecular techniques. We selected two families each with three individuals belonging to successive generations living under the same roof. Stool samples were collected and DNA extraction, DGGE analysis, preparation of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries was done and the results were validated by qPCR. Obligate anaerobes were isolated from samples collected from one family to study the culturable diversity differences.

J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35:907–914 PubMed 29 Supply P, Allix C, L

J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35:907–914.PubMed 29. Supply P, Allix C, Lesjean S, Cardoso-Oelemann M, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Willery E, Savine E, de Haas P, van Selleck Afatinib Deutekom H, Roring S, Bifani P, Kurepina N, Kreiswirth B, Sola C, Rastogi N, Vatin V, Gutierrez MC, Fauville M, Niemann S, Skuce R, Kremer K, Locht C, van Soolingen D: Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 2006, 44:4498–4510.PubMedCrossRef 30. Allix-Béguec LY2606368 concentration C, Harmsen D, Weniger T, Supply P, Niemann S: Evaluation and strategy for use of MIRU-VNTRplus, a multifunctional database for online analysis of genotyping data and phylogenetic

identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. J Clin Microbiol 2008, Niraparib datasheet 46:2692–2699.PubMedCrossRef 31. Hershberg

R, Lipatov M, Small PM, Sheffer H, Niemann S, Homolka S, Roach JC, Kremer K, Petrov DA, Feldman MW, Gagneux S: High functional diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis driven by genetic drift and human demography. PLoS Biol 2008, 6:e311.PubMedCrossRef 32. Comas I, Homolka S, Niemann S, Gagneux S: Genotyping of genetically monomorphic bacteria: DNA sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the limitations of current methodologies. PLoS One 2009, 4:e7815.PubMedCrossRef 33. Fenner L, Malla B, Ninet B, Dubuis O, Stucki D, Borrell S, Huna T, Bodmer T, Egger M, Gagneux S: “Pseudo-Beijing”: Evidence for Convergent Evolution in the

Direct Repeat Region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS One 2011, 6:e24737.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MB carried out the molecular analyses, the data analyses and drafted the manuscript. PH conducted the patient recruitment and follow-up. SL participated to the study design. MC conducted the whole genome analyses. SN conducted the MIRU-VNTR analyses. RC conducted the phenotypic DST. CC participated in the phenotypic DST and helped to draft the manuscript. SB advised the molecular work and helped to draft the manuscript. PS contributed to the study set up. SP conceived the study design. SG participated in the design of the study, coordinated the molecular work and helped to draft the manuscript. Hans-Peter Beck participated in the design of the study, coordinated the molecular work and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Monoterpenes represent a prominent group of volatile organic compounds (VOC), with an estimated mean global emission of 117 Tg C yr-1 into the atmosphere [1] and a fast photochemical turnover [2]. Especially coniferous plants are considered to be main producers of monoterpenes, e.g. for thermotolerance or for communication between plants or the interaction between plants and insects [3–5].

His main research field is dedicated to the physical characteriza

His main research field is dedicated to the Ulixertinib clinical trial Physical characterization of semiconductor nanostructures and their application in hybrid solar cells. He is an author and a coauthor of more than 30 scientific publications in journals and conference proceedings related to micro and

nano systems. LW got his Ph.D. degree in Condensed Matter Physics in Solid State Physics in 2013 at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences. At present, he has a post-doctoral position at the Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is involved in semiconductor device design and characterization of nanowires and nanoparticles of both polymeric and inorganic materials for photovoltaic applications. YZ obtained his bachelors degree in Applied Physics from China University of Petroleum in 2011. Now, he studies Solid State Physics at Hefei Institute of Physical buy CH5183284 Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his master’s

degree. What he majors in are synthesis and characterization of III-V compound semiconductor nanowires and photovoltaic applications. HD received her bachelors degree in Applied Physics in 2012 at Changchun University of Science and Technology, China. At present, she is working on fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructure-based applications at Solid State Physics at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences for a master’s degree. BZ obtained his master’s degree in The Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics Ro 61-8048 datasheet and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in 2013. At present, he studies at the Solid State Physics Department at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences for a Ph.D. degree. He majors in the synthesis and characterization of semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices. TS received his Ph.D. degree at the Department of Physics of the University of Science and Technology of China in 2007. And now, he is a research associate at the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has a background in X-ray

absorption spectrum, polymer solar cells, and thin films coatings. XZ obtained his Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase bachelors degree in Materials Science and Engineering in 2009 at Nanjing University, China. Now, he stays at Solid State Physics Department at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, China Academy of Sciences for a Ph.D. degree. He is working on fabrication and characterization of polymer semiconductor nanostructure. NL received his bachelors degree in Applied Physics in 2011 at Anhui University, China. At present, he is working on fabrication and characterization of polymer semiconductor at Solid State Physics Department at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his master’s degree. YW obtained his Ph.D. degree from Columbia University in 1993.