In the recent past however, serotype Inaba has emerged as the main cause of epidemics in Kenya and these isolates are frequently RXDX-101 concentration not susceptible to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Chl-Str-Sul-Trim). A mobile genetic element (MGE) belonging to the SXT AZD5363 supplier family of ICEs, was shown to confer this phenotype in the strains isolated during the 1998-1999
period . It is however unknown if strains isolated prior to and after this period harbour this element. The integrase gene of the SXT family of ICEs is highly related to the one found in the R391 element  and is also closely related to the one found in conjugative transposons and bacteriophages . Upon conjugation, SXT/R391-like ICEs integrate into the prfC, a gene found on the large V. cholerae chromosome . In the SXT-like elements, genes encoding antibiotic resistance are integrated into the rumB thus interrupting the rumAB operon while in the R391, this operon is not interrupted [11, 12]. An SXT element, SXTMO10, was detected in V. cholerae from a O139 biotype strain from Madras, India and is known to confer the Chl-Str-Sul-Trim phenotype .
This element is related to ICEVchInd1 found in O139 and El Tor strains [12, 13]. Burrus et al. (2006) gave a detailed review of the ICE biology and classification . We investigated 65 strains exhibiting the Chl-Str-Sul-Trim phenotype isolated from various parts of Kenya from 1994 through 2007 for the presence of SXT/R391-like elements and for evidence of integration of the element into the host chromosome. find more We also determined the diversity of rstR genes encoding the cholera CTX-prophage Sirolimus cell line repressor from the 65 strains isolated from the same period. Although most sequences in the CTXΦ-prophage genomes are similar in the El Tor and Classical biotypes strains, the rstR specific to the biotype-specific prophages differ. The El Tor and Classical biotype strains carry the CTXETΦ and the CTXClassΦ repressor types, respectively [15, 16] while the CTXCalcΦ and CTXEnvΦ encode the Calcutta
and Environmental rstR types, respectively [17, 18]. Strains known as the Matlab variants belonging to the El Tor biotype but harbouring the CTXclassΦ prophage have been isolated in Bangladesh , India  and Mozambique . Three classes of multiresistant (MR) integrons (class 1, 2 and 3) are known to harbour genes encoding resistance to antibiotics [22–24]. Integron class 4 is commonly found in V. cholerae and is referred to as a super integron (SI). Although integrons are not capable of self-transposition, they are known to associate with insertion sequences (ISs), transposons, and/or conjugative plasmids which serve as vehicles for the intra- and interspecies transmission of genetic material .