1 Swift identification and management of mild hypoglycaemic episodes prevent progression to severe hypoglycaemia2 which has been associated with increased morbidity,3,4 as has increased duration of hypoglycaemia.5,6 The majority of inpatients with Dasatinib nmr diabetes on nasogastric feeding have altered conscious state and are unable to respond to symptoms of hypoglycaemia, making them reliant on often busy staff, to identify and treat their hypoglycaemia. In this context, even with regular blood glucose monitoring (BGM) there may be considerable progression of a hypoglycaemic episode prior to its identification.5,6 There is extensive literature on diabetes specific formula feeds, mainly with regard to
post-feed hyperglycaemia,7 but less quantifying hypoglycaemia.8–10 We carried out a retrospective case note review to determine
the frequency and timing of hypoglycaemia in hospitalised patients with diabetes on established nasogastric feeding in a tertiary hospital. Subjects were 50 inpatients with diabetes (27 male, 23 female) fed entirely by nasogastric feeding for ≥3 days as per hospital protocol (Table 1). Patients on insulin infusions or in ICU were excluded. Subjects were consecutively flagged by the treating dietitian. Data were collected from medical notes, BGM records, and medication charts. Goals of treatment were blood glucose level (BGL) ≥4 and <10mmol/L. Initial treatment of hypoglycaemia was liquid carbohydrate as per hospital protocol. No identifying information was collected. The study was approved by the Human Ethics Research TSA HDAC ic50 Committee (Curtin University, Western Australia) and as a tertiary hospital clinical audit. Hypoglycaemia was defined as BGL <3.5mmol/L, as a level having clinical relevance.11,12 Severe hypoglycaemia is formally defined as ‘an event requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate’;13 but as this was applicable to all events in this study, we arbitrarily defined severe hypoglycaemia as BGL <2.0mmol/L,
and extended hypoglycaemia as duration >2 hours or repeat episode within 2 hours. There Methane monooxygenase is no standardised reporting method for frequency of hypoglycaemia14 so we have reported it both as percentage of patient-days with ≥1 hypoglycaemic episode (PPD) and percentage of total blood glucose values <3.5mmol/L (PTG), to allow for variable feed duration and consistent with two other studies.8,9 Descriptive statistics were used for subject demographics, χ2 test to compare categorical variables and proportions, Shapiro-Wilk test to determine normality, Spearman rank-order correlation to determine strength of association between non-normally distributed continuous variables, and log-rank test to compare time to event data. Analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics, v21, IBM, NY, USA, and GraphPad Prism 6, GraphPad Software Inc, USA. Subject characteristics are shown in Table 2. Frequency of hypoglycaemia was: PPD 10.9%, PTG 3.