A final extension step at 72°C for 2 min was added after the last

A final extension step at 72°C for 2 min was added after the last PCR cycle. After amplication, the PCR products were digested with BsmI, ApaI and TaqI endonucleases. Following restriction endonuclease digestion, genotyping was determined by ethidum bromide-UVB illumination of the fragments separated on gels of 2% agarose. The presence of BsmI, ApaI or TaqI restriction site was defined as the lower-case ‘b’, ‘a’ and ‘t’, respectively, and the absence of the site was defined as the upper-case ‘B’, ‘A’ or ‘T’. The BsmI restriction site resulted in two fragments (645 bp and 177 bp). Digestion with ApaI produced

BIBW2992 chemical structure two fragments of 531 bp and 214 bp when the restriction site was present. Digestion with TaqI resulted in three fragments of approximately 205, 290 bp and 245 bp in the presence of TaqI polymorphic site, and in fragments of 245 and 495 bp in the absence of a TaqI polymorphic site. Continuous data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the categorical data are expressed as number (percentage). Comparisons of differences in the categorical date between groups were performed using the chi-square test. Distributions of continuous variables were analyzed by the Student’s t-test or one-way ANOVA test with least significant difference (LSD) post-hoc correction between groups where

appropriate. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of each factor on the risk of developing HCC. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software version find more 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). All tests were 2-tailed, and a p-value

of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The basic demographical and clinical features of the patients are shown in Table 1. The mean age of HCC patients was significantly higher than those with cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and controls (P < 0.001). Patients with HCC had a higher male-to-female ratio than other groups (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in BMI among these groups. The HCC subjects had lower platelet count compared to those with chronic hepatitis; whereas the platelet Tryptophan synthase count was comparable between cirrhosis and HCC groups. Firstly, HCC patients were compared with a control cohort of 100 healthy volunteers with regard to allelic frequency. The distribution of the alleles of BsmI, ApaI and TaqI was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both individuals of HCC and controls (P > 0.05 for any). Patients with HCC had a higher frequency of ApaI CC genotype (P = 0.027) and bAt[CCA]-haplotype consisting of BsmI C, ApaI C and TaqI A alleles (P = 0.037) as compared to control subjects. For the BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms, no significant associations were found.

It was based on creating a political framework through ministeria

It was based on creating a political framework through ministerial cooperation (VASAB), testing methodology, and gaining practical planning experience through international pilot projects such as BaltCoast, PlanCoast, BaltSeaPlan [19], EastWest Window, Plan Bothnia [20], and currently PartiSEApate.1 Practical experience

and know-how were implemented in strategic documents at the policy level. These, in turn, led to initiating new cooperation projects to test tools and organizational and institutional Neratinib concentration solutions for MSP. Within these projects, or using experience from them, formal maritime spatial plans were developed in Germany, while in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia pilot maritime spatial plans were developed, which included some transnational plans (Table 2). This approach has resulted in an iterative process of gaining practical insight and experience and translating it into legislative provisions and administrative arrangements, then further testing and continuous improvement (Fig. 1). From the VASAB

viewpoint [6], MSP has been a transnational process from the outset. The most important constitutive elements of the planning system developed by Baltic Sea maritime planners are as follows (Fig. 2): 1. the directional objective of MSP at regional levels was agreed upon in the EU Strategy for the BSR—the action plan for this strategy requires drawing up and applying transboundary, ecosystem-based Maritime Spatial Plans throughout VE821 the region by 2020. This means that Baltic Sea countries must aim to develop national maritime spatial plans based on the ecosystem approach and that planning should be coherent across borders, which entails close cross-border cooperation [21]; Another important element was and remains the system of financial support. It comprised EU Exoribonuclease programs for territorial cooperation financed through Structural Funds (Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007–2013, South Baltic

Cross-border Co-operation Programme 2007–2013), ENPI programs allowing cooperation with Russia on MSP matters (Lithuania–Poland–Russia ENPI Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007–2013), and supporting research (Program BONUS 185). External funding was important because of the pioneering character of the work on the macro-regional MSP system, and, in effect, of the high transaction costs. This funding permitted conducting the projects and the resulting learning process mentioned above. In the future, however, MSP will have to be funded increasingly from national sources, as it already done in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia. Lastly, two important characteristics of the Baltic Sea MSP model should be mentioned. Special attention is focused on integrative MSP and ecosystem-based MSP in the BSR. The impetus for this is the goal of developing pan-Baltic thinking as described in Vision 2030.

(1971) The whole venom apparatus or 15 spines from a medium size

(1971). The whole venom apparatus or 15 spines from a medium size fish (about

20 cm in length and ∼400 g weight) yielded an average of 10–16 mg of protein. The fresh venom extract (SpV) was immediately used for cardiovascular, edema-inducing and nociceptive assays. The protein concentration of the S. plumieri venom was determined by the method of Lowry et al. BGB324 price (1951), using bovine serum albumin as standard. All procedures were conducted in accordance with the Biomedical Research Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996), as stated by the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation (COBEA). The ability of S. plumieri venom to induce edema was studied in male Swiss mice (20–25 g) according to Lima et al. (2003). Samples of 30 μl of sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing different doses of SpV (7.5, 15, 60 μg of protein/animal) check details were injected via intraplantar (i.pl.) route in the right hind paw of mice. Local edema was quantified periodically in 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after injection (N = 4) by measuring the thickness of injected paws with a digital caliper (Zaas Precision). Mice injected with sterile PBS were considered as control group. Results were expressed as percentage increase

of paw thickness after venom administration. Nociceptive activity of the SpV was assayed according to Hunskaar et al. (1985). Each mouse (20–25 g) was kept in a chamber mounted on a mirror. After an adaptation period (10 min), 30 μl of sterile PBS containing different doses of S. plumieri venom (7.5, 15, 30, 60 and 100 μg of protein/animal) were injected (i.pl.) in the right hind paw of mice (N = 4). Afterwards, each animal was returned to the observation chamber and the period of time spent licking or biting the right hind paw was recorded during 30 min and taken as index of nociception. Mice injected with sterile PBS were considered as control group (N = 4). Effects of SpV on blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated in male Wistar rats (250–300 g, N = 7) anesthetized 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase with urethane (1.2 g/kg,

i.p.). A midline incision was made in the cervical region and polyethylene catheters (PE-50) were implanted into the carotid artery and jugular vein of rats for cardiovascular recordings and venom injections, respectively. During all procedures, depth of anesthesia was checked through the pinch of the rear paw. When necessary, additional doses of anesthetic were injected. During all experiments, animals breathed spontaneously. The venom extract was administrated in bolus in a dose of 300 μg protein/kg in 100 μL of saline. The dose used was selected according to our previous work ( Gomes et al., 2010). The pulsatile arterial pressure (PAP) was recorded through a blood pressure transducer (Grass Instrument Div., Warnick, USA) and signals were processed using the BIOPAC-System (MP100, Model PT300, Santa Barbara, USA).

muta muta snake venom, these synthetic immunogens will allow for

muta muta snake venom, these synthetic immunogens will allow for therapeutic serum development or for vaccination approaches. This research was supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), the INCTTOX PROGRAM of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior/Comité Français d’evaluation de la Cooperation Universitaire avec le Brésil (CAPES/COFECUB-Brazil/France). We thank

Dr. Roscovitine clinical trial J. Scott for the gift of phage libraries and the Núcleo de Estudo de Estrutura e Função de Biomoléculas (Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil) for technical support for mass spectrometry. “
“The kallikrein–kinin system plays an important role in several biological functions, including inflammation and cardiovascular homeostasis [7]. The diverse range of effects elicited by kinins is mediated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors, named B1 and B2. Bradykinin (BK) is the natural agonist of the B2 receptor, and its degradation by carboxypeptidases generates the B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg[9]-BK

[34]. Whereas B2 receptors are constitutively expressed and mediate most of the known effects assigned to kinins, B1 receptors are weakly detectable under physiological AZD6244 mw conditions, but rapidly induced by inflammatory stimuli [7] and [23]. Both B1 and B2 receptors act through Gαq to stimulate phospholipase Cβ followed by phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular free Ca2+ mobilization [19]. The resulting intracellular free Ca2+ is the initial step in the activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which catalyzes oxidation of the terminal guanidine nitrogen of l-arginine to form l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) [32]. Three NOS isoforms have been described: neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1), inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2),

and endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3). The iNOS isoform differs from nNOS and eNOS in that it is fully active in the absence of Ca2+[27]. The NOS isoforms have similar enzymatic mechanisms and require presence of co-factors Sulfite dehydrogenase tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for its proper function [25]. In the vasculature, once formed by NOS, endothelial NO diffuses in to the smooth muscle and activates soluble guanylate cyclase that catalyzes the formation of 3′, 5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in smooth muscle relaxation and therefore vasodilation [13]. In the last recent years, the development of genetically engineered mice lacking kinin receptors has allowed a better understanding of the physiological and pathological role of the kallikrein–kinin system in a wide range of biological events [31].

State transitions have not been documented in diatoms [5], and no

State transitions have not been documented in diatoms [5], and none are reported for the eustigmatophyceae. Instead, diatoms balance photosystem activity by quenching photon absorption by PSII as a result of de-epoxidation of xanthophyll pigments [10]. A direct comparison showed that this process resulted in 2-fold less generation of wasted electrons than state transitions in a chlorophyte [10]. Quenching in the antenna system also reduces damage to the photosystems,

which carries a high energetic replacement cost [11•]. Dissipation of excess light in photosynthesis is primarily achieved through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Different strategies have developed for NPQ in evolutionarily distinct classes of algae, including rapid rates of synthesis

or high accumulation of de-expoidized xanthophylls [12]. Xanthophyll cycling systems are apparently lacking CT99021 order in phycobilisome-containing organisms and the Chlorarachniophyta [11• and 13], and NPQ in cryptophytes differs from other chromalveolates [14]. Differences in photosynthetic processes are likely to affect light harvesting efficiency, which ultimately translates into altered growth and product molecule accumulation. There are very few definitive analyses comparing the relative efficiency of the described diverse photosynthetic arrangements. Such information would not only aid in developing strategies for improved light capture in diverse classes of microalgae, but potentially in the development of artificial photosynthesis approaches. Carbon fixation in the Calvin–Benson GDC-0449 cycle is catalyzed by RuBisCO, which has a low CO2-saturated maximum catalytic rate and competitive oxygenase activity resulting in photorespiration. To compensate, microalgae have taken advantage of different strategies to maximize carbon fixation efficiency. One involves the use of RuBisCO with improved affinity for CO2 and selectivity for CO2 relative

to O2 [15]. Cyanobacterial-type RuBisCO forms IA and IB (found in cyanobacteria and green algae) generally have a low affinity for CO2 and a low CO2/O2 selectivity relative to red algal-derived forms see more IB and ID, however the latter has a lower turnover rate [15]. Kinetic and regulatory variabilities suggest that different forms of RuBisCO are evolutionarily selected to function optimally in different subcellular environments [16]. Carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are another way to increase carbon fixation efficiency, and these can be classified as being either biophysical (involving localized enhancement of CO2) or biochemical (involving specific enzymatic pathways). The biophysical mechanism of concentrating RuBisCO in carboxysomes and pyrenoids allows for regulation of CO2 delivery [17•• and 18•]. Cyanobacteria and chlorophytes rely largely on biophysical CCMs by transporting and accumulating bicarbonate and converting it to CO2 near RuBisCO via carbonic anhydrase [19].

Absorbance was read at 450 nm (measured in a Plate reader, Biotec

Absorbance was read at 450 nm (measured in a Plate reader, Bioteck, USA), using 100 μl of TMB solution and 100 μl 2 N HCl as a blank control. Manufacturer’s information shows that the kit anti-bradykinin

anti-body reacts with bradykinin, kallidin, [Des-Arg1]-bradykinin and biotinyl-bradykinin and this peptides detection limit is of approximately 0.004 ng/ml. The follicular fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to determine estradiol concentration, following the manufacturer’s instructions (Cayman Biochemical). The differences on continuous data between hours during the ovulation process were accessed BMN 673 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multi-comparison between hours was performed by least square means. Data were tested for normal distribution using the Shapiro–Wilk test and normalized when necessary. All analyses were performed using the JMP software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, USA) and a P < 0.05

was considered statistically check details significant. Data are presented as mean ± sem. There were no differences regarding follicular diameter in different time-points before the ovariectomy (evaluated through ultrasound; data not shown). The concentration of estradiol increased 3 h after treatment with GnRH, the expected endogenous LH surge time, and gradually decreased thereafter, up to 24 h (data not shown). The KKS precursor expression, or KNG, was similar for both follicular cell types, granulosa and theca, during the ovulation (P > 0.05, Fig. 1A and B). The mRNA expression of the B2R receptor was constant during the ovulation process in granulosa cells, with no difference (P > 0.05) at different times after the LH surge induction ( Fig. 1C). However, in theca cells, the mRNA B2R receptor expression showed an increase (P < 0.05) after the GnRH (hour zero) injection up until 6 h and gradual decrease at 12 h, remaining constant until 24 h ( Fig. 1D). The B1R receptor mRNA expression was different in both follicular cells types during the assessed times. In granulosa cells ( Fig. 1E), the

expression increased only at 6 h and decreased after that. In theca cells ( Fig. 1F), the B1R Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase expression increased at 3 and 6 h, decreased at 12 h and then remained constant until 24 h. Results for kallikrein-like activity in the follicular fluid showed a decrease (P < 0.05) between the LH ovulatory surge induction (hour zero) and 24 h ( Fig. 2A). There was, however, no difference between zero and 12 h. The bradykinin presented differences (P < 0.05) during the ovulation. The BK increased after zero hour until 6 h, decreased until 12 h and remained constant up until 24 h ( Fig. 2B). This study demonstrated for the first time that components of the KKS system are produced in the ovary during ovulation in monovular species, using a sensitive semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzymatic assay for the KKS components.

, 2011), and

(2) a maximal importance of facilitative pro

, 2011), and

(2) a maximal importance of facilitative processes under the tropics lines, where aridity may reach a peak (SGH prediction). 2. In situ manipulative experiments. To our knowledge, in situ manipulations have been implemented only once in TAE ( Smith, 1984), and allowed identifying a complex network of interactions including interspecific competition and indirect intraspecific facilitation. In the specific Epacadostat in vivo case of TAE, experimental manipulations would allow investigating the additivity or multiplicability of competitive and facilitative effects, two classical features of the SGH that have recently been challenged outside the tropics ( Malkinson and Tielbörger, 2010). Such a test may be conducted either

by removing one or several components of the existing communities, or by transplanting in common gardens a whole set of species mixture and comparing the fitness of target species (e.g. Michalet et al., 2011). Where manipulations are not possible, observations of different set of mixtures may be conducted, only if the local environment is estimated similar among treatments (e.g. Michel et al., 2012). Given the paucity of available data on plant–plant interactions in TAE, most of the research in this field remains to be done. It constitutes an important scientific challenge because plant–plant interactions are expected to be facilitative and play a crucial role on plant community organization in this type of environment,

especially in view of recent environmental changes Selleck Ceritinib caused by increasing intensity of human activities. By reviewing the environmental characteristics of tropical areas, we make doubtless the fact that interactions in TAE will be governed by distinctive parameters from those observed in extratropical alpine environments where 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase most of the ‘alpine’ knowledge on interactions come from. We identified the major environmental drivers of plant–plant interactions that are presumed to vary from extratropical environments to TAE (Fig. 1), which permitted to raise a number of central hypotheses to be tested. Among them, determining whether the variation of interactions along TAE gradients fit the aridity model or the alpine model may be a priority as it would allow testing the SGH in TAE. By proposing an array of complementary methodologies we provide a basic toolkit to test these hypotheses with the objective to extend the conceptual framework on plant–plant interactions. We warmly thank the constructive suggestions provided by C. Holzapfel and two anonymous reviewers. Our manuscript is undoubtedly a stronger contribution as a result of their efforts. “
“The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora, or the Washington Convention more commonly known as CITES, is a multilateral treaty.

The huge importance of those data is in their time of sampling: t

The huge importance of those data is in their time of sampling: the measurements were made immediately before (03.09.1976) and after (05/06.09.1976) strong wind events from the SE and NE. click here Furthermore, wind speed and direction, cloudiness,

air humidity and temperature were also measured at station 5 ( Figure 3) with a 3-hour temporal resolution. The T and S values measured (03.09.1976 and 07.09.1976) at the CTD sites at these depths situated in the vicinity of the open boundaries BC1, BC2 and BC3 were used directly for the boundary forcing of the 3D Mike 3fm model. The time variability in T and S at the open boundary fields during the simulated period were linearly interpolated

from measurements. The sea level dynamics at the open boundaries were synthesized using 7 major tidal constituents M2, S2, K2, N2, K1, O1 and P1 ( Janeković et al. 2003, 2005). Unfortunately, temperature measurements were carried out at stations 1–4 only on 05.09.1976 and at station 5 only on 06.09.1976. Therefore, the initial T, S fields for the 3D model were calculated using bilinear interpolation of the T, S values measured at stations BC1, BC2 and BC3 on 03.09.1976, whereas the temperatures measured at stations 1–5 were used for the verification of the model results. Another data set was available from the monitoring programmes Buparlisib chemical structure conducted in the period 2003–2007. Vertical profiles of T, S and σt were recorded with CTD probes in the central part of Rijeka Bay (station 5, Figure 1). Measurements were carried out in March, May, June, July and September ( Figure 4). The primary interest in the study was related to the period from June to July because this is the height of the tourist season. The gentlest vertical density gradients were measured on 17.07.2003

with the pycnocline recorded at 5 m depth. Such a vertical Anidulafungin (LY303366) density distribution is more susceptible to vertical mixing due to atmospheric forcing than the vertical profiles registered in all the other years of monitoring. Therefore, in the second step of our study, the initial and open boundary T, S 3D fields were defined on the basis of the T, S profiles measured at station 5 on 17.07.2003 ( Figure 4). The T and S fields were unified in the horizontal direction across the whole model domain. At the onset of the bora wind, sea currents were flowing out mostly through open boundaries 1 and 2; hence, temporal changes of T and S in the surface layer were hard to determine. Simultaneously, a compensatory inflow through the middle and bottom layers at open boundaries 1 and 2 took place.

1 Psychosocial factors

such as fear of movement, self-eff

1 Psychosocial factors

such as fear of movement, self-efficacy beliefs, poor recovery expectation, pain catastrophizing, passive coping, and depression predict poor recovery.2, 4, 6 and 7 Studying the prognosis of whiplash is complicated, and the validity of previous studies has been limited by small sample size, inclusion of patients >6 months after injury onset, short follow-up periods Selleck Pexidartinib (<6mo), loss to follow-up, unblinded outcome assessors, and lack of statistical adjustment for important covariates.8 Because of a weak association between self-reported and objectively measured function in patients with chronic pain,9 the use of both self-reported and objectively measured data for a comprehensive assessment of (work-related) illness status is recommended.10 Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) consists of batteries of standardized tests to evaluate an injured worker's functional capacity and ability to perform work-related activities.11 When FCE results indicate that a worker's functional capacity is less than the job's physical demands, a rehabilitation program can be proposed to improve the ability to return to work (RTW).12 and 13 FCEs are also used to guide case closure.14 and 15 However, the prognostic ability of FCE for RTW is not known for patients with WADs. As such, this study aimed (1) to determine the predictive ability of FCE tests to determine

future work capacity Selleckchem Forskolin (WC); and (2) to develop a predictive model for WC in a cohort MEK inhibitor of patients with WADs grades I and II who did not regain full WC 6 to 12 weeks after injury. Our hypotheses were that FCE tests independently predict WC in the short-term and that the predictive ability of FCE tests decreases over time. A prospective cohort design was used for this study. Participants were recruited from the German-speaking part of Switzerland. They all were insured by the Swiss Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA). SUVA is the largest state-owned accident insurance fund in Switzerland and covers occupational and nonoccupational injuries

for employed individuals, mainly in labor industries, and unemployed job-seeking persons.16 Injured persons receive compensation up to a maximum of 80% of their previous salary, and medical and vocational assistance. If health status is stabilized but disabilities remain, long-term invalidity pensions are refunded by SUVA and the invalidity insurance. Between January 2011 and January 2012, insurance physicians or case managers of SUVA referred eligible participants for an interdisciplinary rehabilitation assessment at the rehabilitation clinic in Bellikon (Switzerland). The main reasons for referral included (1) not regaining full WC within 6 to 12 weeks after a whiplash injury; (2) exceeding expected healing times; (3) or having plateaued with the provided medical and rehabilitative care.

As a result, filter paper pieces in 10 × TE may remain in the tub

As a result, filter paper pieces in 10 × TE may remain in the tube, and the DNA remains usable for repeated PCR amplification for

as long as three weeks or more (data not shown). All procedures can be readily performed in a highly contained environment. Thus, this method will also be of great benefit to specialists who routinely perform PCR experiments on a variety of fungal pathogens. It will also be particularly useful when amplification of a fungus is prohibited or impossible owing to its potential toxicity or danger of escape during the pathogen quarantine process. Of the 28 samples tested for the presence of AVR-Pita1, 15 showed amplified bands identical to that of the positive control ZN61 selleck compound [11] ( Fig. 2-E). The availability

of a rapid, low-cost, and reliable DNA extraction procedure would considerably reduce not only the workload but also the test turnaround time. The same genomic DNA prepared following this procedure was repeatedly amplified by PCR with three primer pairs (Fig. 2). Recently, DNAs prepared several months ago from filters have been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of M. oryzae, and filters stored for 1 to 9 years have been used to amplify AVR-Pita1, AVR-Pi9, and other fungal genes (X. Wang and Y Jia, unpublished data). Although this procedure is not suitable for producing large amounts of fungal DNA, we anticipate that it could be applied to the study of many other fungal Fulvestrant order cultures as a rapid, reliable, and low-cost alternative to the existing DNA extraction protocols for PCR used in research

and clinical laboratories. Consequently, this method will be of great benefit for crop breeding and protection worldwide [13]. The authors thank Dr. Barbara Valent of Kansas State University and Guo-Liang Wang of Ohio State University for the technical support; Tracy Bianco GBA3 and Michael Lin of USDA Agriculture Research Service for pathogen isolation, purification, storage, and other technical support; and Scott Belmar for reviewing the manuscript. This project was supported in part by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant 2013-68004-20378 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. USDA is an equal-opportunity provider and employer. “
“The genus Gossypium encompasses 50 species (45 diploids and five allopolyploids), which are distributed throughout most tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1]. Of the four cultivated species, Gossypium hirsutum L. (2n = 4x = 52, A1D1) is responsible for approximately 90% of the total cotton production worldwide. The other three principal cultivated species are the African diploid Gossypium herbaceum L. (2n = 2x = 26, A2), the Asian and Indian diploid Gossypium arboreum L. (2n = 2x = 26, A1), and the New World tetraploid Gossypium barbadense L. (2n = 4x = 52, A2D2).