Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlat

Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between patient-reported pain scores and concentrations of IL-6 (Spearman rho = 0.7), MCP-1 (rho = 0.8), MIP-1 beta (rho = 0.6), and IFN-gamma (rho = 0.6). These four cytokines also demonstrated a positive correlation with each other (rho = 0.5 to 0.7). The presence of IFN-gamma, IL-6, MCP-1, CA3 chemical structure or MIP-1 beta performed as well as magnetic resonance imaging in

the prediction of intraoperative findings.

Conclusions: Intra-articular concentrations of four inflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1 beta correlated to pain in patients with symptomatic meniscal tears in the knee but were markedly lower in asymptomatic normal knees and in asymptomatic knees with meniscal tears. These cytokines may be involved in the generation of pain following meniscal injury.”
“Background: Recent evidence suggests that YKL-40, also called chitinase-3-like-1 protein, is involved see more in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Details of sputum YKL-40 in asthma and COPD, however, remain unknown. Objectives: To clarify associations of sputum YKL-40 levels with clinical indices in asthma and COPD. Methods:

Thirty-nine patients with asthma, 14 age-matched never-smokers as controls, 45 patients with COPD, and 7 age-matched smokers as controls were recuited for this study. Sputum YKL-40 levels were measured and YKL-40 expression in sputum cells was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Results: Sputum YKL-40 levels were higher in patients with COPD (346 +/- 325 ng/ml) than in their smoker controls (125 +/- 122 ng/ml; p < 0.05), but were not significantly different between patients with asthma (117 +/- 170 ng/ml) and their controls (94 +/- 44 ng/ml; p = 0.15). In patients with asthma only, sputum YKL-40 levels were positively correlated

with disease severity (r = 0.34, p = 0.034) and negatively correlated with pre- and postbronchodilator % FEV1 (r = -0.47 and -0.42, respectively; p < 0.01) and forced mid-expiratory flow (r = -0.48 and -0.46, respectively, p < 0.01). Sputum YKL-40 levels were positively correlated Z-VAD-FMK inhibitor with sputum neutrophil counts in asthma (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and with neutrophil and macrophage counts in COPD (r = 0.45 and 0.65, respectively, p < 0.01). YKL-40 was expressed in the cytoplasm of sputum neutrophils and macrophages in all groups. Conclusions: Elevated sputum YKL-40 reflects airflow obstruction in asthma whereas the roles of YKL-40 in the proximal airways in COPD remain to be elucidated. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“OBJECTIVE; To measure discontinuation within 6 months among users of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, copper intrauterine device (IUD), and etonogestrel implant and identify baseline characteristics associated with early discontinuation.

Only minor adverse events were reported and resolved by the end o

Only minor adverse events were reported and resolved by the end of the study.

Conclusion: The new transcutaneous bone conduction implant was demonstrated to be safe and effective in adults up to 3 months of device use.”
“Understanding the molecular basis of many cardiac diseases has been hampered by the

lack of appropriate in vitro cell culture models that accurately reflect the human disease phenotypes. In the past few years, remarkable advances in stem cell biology have made possible this long-standing ambition-the generation of human and even patient-specific cellular models of diseases. Combined with other novel technologies in the fields of human genetics, tissue engineering, and gene-targeted manipulation, disease modeling with pluripotent stem cells has the

promise to influence modern cardiovascular CP-868596 mw medicine on several fronts: molecular understanding of pathological mechanisms, early diagnosis, drug development, and effective Androgen Receptor Antagonists high throughput screening treatment.”
“BACKGROUND: Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for biofuels and chemical byproducts uses relatively expensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which could alternatively be achieved by using solar energy for direct production of these enzymes within feedstock crop cellulosic biomass.

RESULTS: The Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-cellulase El has been produced in transgenic maize plants. This heterologous enzyme was specifically targeted for accumulation into two sub-cellular compartments, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria of plant leaves and stalks. Furthermore, successful use of this maize-produced heterologous cellulase in converting cellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels, has

been confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS: Green-specific expression of cellulases in maize plants can avoid public controversies associated with production of transgene products in maize seeds and/or pollen. Sub-cellular targeting of cellulases may result in better expression of transgene products because these compartments, specially ER, normally contain molecular chaperones that enhance protein folding and there the biological activity. Also, using solar energy to produce buy FK866 cellulases within crop cellulosic biomass can replace the costly process of cellulase production in microbial bioreactors, and therefore, save costs. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical industry”
“Background: Air-conducted (ACS) cervical VEMP (cVEMP) reflect both saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) to air and bone-conducted vibration (BCV) are critically discussed, whether they reflect predominantly utricular and superior vestibular nerve function. The video head impulse test (vHIT) accurately detects changes in the high frequency range (5-7 Hz) of the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) in all 3 planes and can be used to assess semicircular canals (SCC) impairment.

WB and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (

WB and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on discrepant samples.

Results: IF results were 100% concordant with EIA/rapid tests for 212 HIV-1-positive samples and 1889 HIV-1-negative samples. Interestingly, three (0.14%) samples negative by EIA/rapid tests were weakly or moderately positive (1+/2+) by IF test. All three of these samples were confirmed to be negative by WB (reactive with Gag/Pol, but not with Env), but positive by RT-PCR with primers targeting the C2-V5 fragment of the env gene. These three

samples were from individuals who voluntarily reported for HIV testing because of high-risk practices, and they may have been at an early stage of HIV infection.

Conclusions: These results confirm that the IF test using L-2 cells is a sensitive and specific alternative method for confirmation of PXD101 molecular weight HIV-1 infection and could be included

in the diagnostic algorithm in reference laboratories in developing countries. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There are several SN-38 price types of serious nuclear or radiologic emergencies that would require a specialized medical response. Four scenarios of great public health, economic, and psychologic impact are the detonation of a nuclear weapon, the meltdown of a nuclear reactor, the explosion of a large radiologic dispersal device (“”dirty

bomb”"), or the surreptitious placement of a radiation exposure device in a public area of high population density. With any of these, medical facilities that remain functional may have to deal with large numbers of ill, wounded, and probably contaminated people. Special care and/or handling will be needed for those with trauma, blast injuries, or thermal burns as well as significant radiation exposures or contamination. In addition, radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists will be called on to perform a number of diverse and critically important tasks, including advising political and public health leaders, interfacing with the media, managing essential resources, and, of course, providing selleck inhibitor medical care. This article describes the medical responses needed following a radiologic or nuclear incident, including the symptoms of and specific treatments for acute radiation syndrome and other early health effects. (C) RSNA, 2010).”
“The authors did a preliminary examination asking whether plasma ceramides were elevated in depression, and whether the elevation was more pronounced in Alzheimer’s disease patients than in control subjects. Results suggest that plasma ceramides are elevated in persons with a diagnosis of major depression, regardless of dementia status.

In the current study, we

investigated mechanisms of hypom

In the current study, we

investigated mechanisms of hypomyelination induced by vanadium exposure in developing rat brain. We demonstrate that both in vivo and in vitro, OPCs are more sensitive to vanadium exposure than astrocytes or mature oligodendrocytes. Vanadium exposure in OPCs resulted in increased ROS generation and increased annexinV labeling suggestive of apoptosis. Because ferritin is a major iron delivery protein for oligodendrocytes, we exposed the cells to recombinant ferritin and iron both of which exacerbated vanadium cytotoxicity, while the iron chelator desferroxamine (DFO) prevented cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of vanadium. To CYT387 cell line illustrate relationship between ferritin and vanadium, we demonstrate that vanadium exacerbated DNA nicking produced by iron-rich spleen ferritin, but selleck chemicals not iron-poor apoferritin, resulting in a single and double strand breaks in a DNA relaxation assay. We propose that developmental exposure to vanadium interferes with normal iron assimilation into oligodendrocytes resulting in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, depletion of OPCs due to vanadium exposure in early post-natal period may be an important mechanism of vanadium-induced hypomyelination.”
“Study

Design. A prospective comparative study about the incidence of postoperative C5 palsy and multivariate analysis of the risk factors of C5 palsy.

Objective. To clarify the risk factors of occurrence of C5 palsy after laminoplasty S3I-201 chemical structure (LP) by comparing the 2 surgical procedures of open-door and double-door LP prospectively.

Summary of Background Data. The incidence

of C5 palsy has been reported to average 4.6%, and there has been no difference of the incidence among surgical procedures. However, there were only indirect retrospective studies.

Methods. A total of 146 patients who underwent the LP procedure between 2006 and 2007 were studied prospectively. In 2006, the patients were assigned to undergo the open-door LP, and in 2007, they were assigned to undergo the double-door LP. The incidence of postoperative C5 palsy was compared prospectively between these 2 LP procedures, and the risk factors of C5 palsy were detected with multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results. Postoperative C5 palsy occurred in 7 of 73 cases after open-door LP (9.6%) and in 1 of 73 cases after double-door LP (1.4%). The incidence of C5 palsy after open-door LP was statistically higher than the one after double-door LP (P = 0.029), and open-door LP was recognized as a significant risk factor for postoperative C5 paralysis (odds ratio: 69.6, P = 0.043). In addition, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was recognized as a significant risk factor for postoperative C5 paralysis (odds ratio: 43.8, P = 0.048).

Conclusion.

Practice guidelines have been published to minimize the likelihoo

Practice guidelines have been published to minimize the likelihood of directly encountering vulnerable

arterial structures. However, retrograde learn more flow into a vertebral or medullary artery has not been considered in the literature.

This case demonstrates retrograde flow into a common arterial trunk with subsequent antegrade flow of intravenous contrast into a thoracic spinal artery during thoracic transforaminal injection.

Antegrade flow of particulate steroids through direct cannulation of a vertebral or medullary artery has been advocated as one explanation for complications involving brain or spinal cord infarction. The possibility of retrograde flow into a common arterial trunk with subsequent antegrade flow into vulnerable arteries should also be considered as a possible mechanism by which embolic spinal cord or brain injury may occur.

Retrograde flow into medullary or vertebral arteries without direct cannulation can occur, and provides an alternative mechanism of potential injury to the spinal cord or brain during transforaminal Belnacasan mouse injections.”
“Treatment

of patients with staghorn calculi with percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be challenging, often necessitating multiple tracts or sessions for complete stone clearance. Although open anatrophic nephrolithotomy can result in higher stone-free rates, it is rarely performed because of increased morbidity. To provide a minimally invasive alternative, we developed the technique of robot-assisted anatrophic nephrolithotomy (RANL) incorporating ice slush for renal hypothermia.

Three patients with staghorn calculi (mean total stone volume 12887.67mm(3)) underwent RANL with iced cold ischemia. A GelPOINT port was used for ice slush insertion. Intracorporeal temperatures were <9 degrees C within 30 minutes of cold ischemia. Mean console and cold ischemia times Selleckchem Etomoxir were 167 and 56.7 minutes, respectively. Mean blood loss was 100mL. There were no complications. Two patients had residual fragments measuring 13mm, and two 9mm stones, respectively. RANL with iced cold ischemia is a safe and feasible option that may be considered in patients with staghorn stones. Further study is needed to refine the technique and assess long-term functional outcomes.”
“Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) has recently been shown to be a fast and accurate 2-D elasticity imaging technique that can provide a full field-of-view (FOV) shear wave speed map with only one rapid data acquisition. The initial version of CUSE was termed U-CUSE because unfocused ultrasound push beams were used. In this paper, we present two new versions of CUSE-focused CUSE (F-CUSE) and marching CUSE (M-CUSE), which use focused ultrasound push beams to improve acoustic radiation force penetration and produce stronger shear waves in deep tissues (e. g., kidney and liver). F-CUSE divides transducer elements into several subgroups which transmit multiple focused ultrasound beams simultaneously.

05), ammonia, and VFA production (-52 and -21%, respectively, aft

05), ammonia, and VFA production (-52 and -21%, respectively, after 24 h; P < 0.001) compared with the control group. Significant inhibition of clostridia and LAB occurred in cecal fermentations: the Bac+ group yielded a decreased number of clostridia and LAB in cecal fermentations (8.19 and 7.80 cfu/mL, respectively) compared with Bac- (9.32 and 8.95 cfu/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). The low clostridia counts

in the pediocin-treated group may also explain the reduced concentration of the carcinogenic compound p-cresol (-88%; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that pediocin A could be an alternative to replace antibiotic growth promoters for the prophylaxis of enteric diseases and to improve production of farm animals.”
“We demonstrate that nanoindents formed in amorphous Si films, check details with dimensions as small as similar to 20 nm, provide a means to seed solid phase crystallization. During selleck kinase inhibitor post-indentation annealing

at similar to 600 degrees C, solid phase crystallization initiates from the indented sites, effectively removing the incubation time for random nucleation in the absence of seeds. The seeded crystallization is studied by optical microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and electrical characterization via Hall measurements. Full crystallization can be achieved, with improved electrical characteristics attributed to the improved microstructure, using a lower thermal budget. The process is metal contaminant free and allows for selective area crystallization.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3647587]“
“We describe a case of a woman with epilepsy treated with primidone/phenobarbital (so-called “”old”" antiepileptic drug) and levetiracetam (so-called “”new”" antiepileptic drug) who was discouraged from breastfeeding, resulting in clinically significant withdrawal seizures in her newborn. As a consequence, even when two or more antiepileptic drugs are needed for the treatment of women with epilepsy, breastfeeding should be recommended, mothers should be informed about the possiblity of drug effects on the neonate, and infants of mothers treated with primidone/phenobarbital should be closely monitored for possible signs of sedation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The ACY-738 solubility dmso plant extract mixture (XT) used in the present experiment, containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and capsicum oleoresin, has previously been shown to decrease diarrhea mortality and to modify the intestinal environment of pigs after weaning. However, results obtained among experiments have not been consistent. We hypothesized that dietary protein could be a main factor determining the effect of plant extracts on intestinal environment. Thus, in the present study we assessed the effects of XT in piglet diets with different protein sources and amounts.

0 and Review Manager Version 4 2 Five studies including the data

0 and Review Manager Version 4.2. Five studies including the data on development of liver cirrhosis, and eleven studies including the data on development of HCC were analyzed. There was no evidence for publication bias on the funnel plot or by Egger’s test, and the heterogeneity Galunisertib research buy test indicated that the variation of trial-specific RR was not statistically significant. A different incidence of liver cirrhosis and HCC was observed between treated and untreated patients. The RR of liver cirrhosis and HCC was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.91) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.81), respectively. In conclusion, the results

of this meta-analysis indicate that IFN prevents or delays the development of liver cirrhosis and HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B.”
“Structural, magnetization, selleck chemical heat capacity, and electrical resistivity measurements have been carried out on a new ruthenate compound La3.5Ru4O13. This compound forms in the orthorhombic structure (Pmmm space group, #47). The coexistence of

the triple-layered perovskite-type planes [quasi-two-dimensional (2D) structure] and the rutilelike slabs [one-dimensional (1D) structure] leads to interesting magnetic and electronic properties in this compound. The relatively short Ru-O bond distances or stronger 4d-2p hybridization of rutilelike slabs suggest an electronic delocalization feature along the slab axis (b-axis). In the high-temperature region, a Curie-Weiss behavior of the magnetic susceptibility is observed with an effective magnetic moment mu(eff)=(2.44 +/- 0.02)mu(B) per Ru ion and a paramagnetic Curie temperature Sonidegib in vivo theta(p)=-198 +/- 2 K. The magnetic susceptibility of this compound shows a peak at T similar to 47 K typical of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) order which is confirmed by heat capacity measurements.

This AFM order can be associated with the AFM coupling of Ru ions of the quasi-2D layers. The electronic specific heat coefficient gamma is found to be 12 mJ/mol(Ru) K-2, suggesting moderate carrier correlations. Resistivity and magnetic data suggest that the quasi-2D substructure shows semiconducting behavior, while a metallic behavior is expected for the 1D slabs.”
“Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important aspect of the overall management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The major challenge is to find a valid and reliable disease-specific HRQoL instrument designed specifically for measuring health status in hepatitis B patient. Consequently, this study was undertaken to adapt culturally the Hepatitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (HQLQ) and assess its suitability for use in English-speaking hepatitis B virus-infected (HBV) patients in Singapore. Two patient focus groups were conducted to facilitate the cultural adaptation of the HQLQ. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients. Item-to-scale correlation was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlations (rho) between scale scores and their constituent items.

There were

There were Rabusertib purchase no significant histopathological differences between B5 and 4% formaldehyde fixation (p > 0.05).

Conclusion:

Our results suggest that peritoneum obtained from the anterior abdominal wall is the most affected area and therefore the most suitable site to investigate peritoneal changes in the experimental rat PD model. There were no significant differences between fixation with 4% formaldehyde and B5 solution. Abdominal wall samples should be of the same direction of inner abdominal muscle, that is, horizontal sectioning should be used for measurements of the submesothelial area.”
“Objectives: Everolimus is an immunosuppressant and an antiproliferative macrolide agent which is used for coronary stent coating for local inhibition of in-stent restenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of everolimus-coated tympanostomy tubes www.selleckchem.com/products/blasticidin-s-hcl.html in rat tympanic membrane.

Study design: Prospective controlled animal study.

Materials and methods: Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. They were bilaterally myringotomized. An everolimus-coated fluoroplastic

tympanostomy tube was inserted into one ear of each of the rats (everolimus-coated TT Group; n = 21) and a standard fluoroplastic tympanostomy tube was applied to the contralateral ear of the same rats (Standard TT Group; n = 21). Tympanic membranes and tubes were routinely examined otomicroscopically every other day for two months. Then the membranes were harvested and evaluated histologically.

Results: In everolimus-coated tubes, the tube obstruction was found to be significantly lower than in standard tubes

(p < 0.05). The tube extrusion rate was less for everolimus-coated tubes than for standard tubes, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the two tubes. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of otorrhea between two tubes. Histopathological examination under light microscope revealed that everolimus-coated tubes resulted in less fibrosis and less inflammation in tympanic membranes than standard tubes (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: The study shows the potential role of everolimus-coating of tympanostomy tubes in reducing tube obstruction. In addition, inflammatory this website reaction and fibrosis were observed to be significantly less with these tubes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Abnormalities of nutrition status are a common problem in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and a source of significant morbidity and mortality. The state of decreased body protein mass and fuel reserves (body protein and fat mass) common in PD patients is now better known as protein-energy wasting (PEW).

Protein-energy wasting is a slow, progressive process in chronic kidney disease. The correct approach to this problem includes measurement of early, intermediate, and late markers of PEW, and consideration of the risk factors specific to the patient and to PD.

It is of note that personalizing medical treatment based on genet

It is of note that personalizing medical treatment based on genetic information is not the revolution of the 21st century. Indeed, the use of genetic information, such as human leukocyte antigen-matching for solid organ transplantation or blood transfusion based on ABO blood group antigens, has been standard of care for several decades. However, in recent years rapid technical advances have allowed us to perform high-throughput, high-density

molecular analyses to depict the genomic, proteinomic, and epigenomic make-up of an individual at a reasonable cost. Hence, the so-called genomic revolution is more or less the logical evolution from years of bench-based research and bench-to-bedside translational medicine.”
“To cite this article: Dello Iacono I, Tripodi S, Calvani M, Panetta V, Verga MC, Miceli Sopo S. Specific oral tolerance induction with raw hens egg in children with very learn more severe egg allergy: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 00. Abstract Background: Treatment of severe egg allergy is avoidance of hens egg (HE) and carrying self-injectable epinephrine. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems a promising alternative treatment. However, some aspects of SOTI are still considered experimental. Methods: We evaluated the efficacy and safety

of an original 6-month SOTI protocol in children with very severe HE allergy using raw HE emulsion. Twenty children (age range: 511 yr) were JIB-04 purchase randomized equally into a SOTI treatment group and a control group. The treatment group started SOTI and underwent a second challenge 6 months later. Control children were kept on an egg-free diet for 6 months and then underwent a second challenge. Results:

After 6 months, 9/10 children Epoxomicin of the SOTI group (90%) achieved partial tolerance (at least 10 ml, but <40 ml of raw HE emulsion, in a single dose) and 1 (10%) was able to tolerate only 5 ml (no tolerance). After 6 months, nine control children tested positive to the second challenge at a dose =0.9 ml of raw HE emulsion, and one reacted to 1.8 ml (SOTI vs. control group p < 0.0001). All children in the SOTI group had side effects, but no child had a grade 5 reaction according to the Sampson grading. Conclusion: Six months of SOTI with raw HE emulsion resulted in partial tolerance, with regular intake, in a significant percentage of children with severe egg allergy.”
“Aim:

The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the placental variables of oxidative stress markers in preeclamptic women.

Methods:

A total of 60 placentas were collected. Of these, 30 were obtained from normotensive pregnancies, and 30 from pregnancies with preeclampsia as per International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Each placental tissue was analyzed for levels of pro-oxidant (malondialdehyde) and antioxidants (glutathione and superoxide dismutase) using the standard enzymatic assays.

6 +/- 12 5 years The body mass index (BMI) of the patients range

6 +/- 12.5 years. The body mass index (BMI) of the patients ranged from 20.1 to 35.8 kg/m(2), with an average BMI of 25.4 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2). All patients underwent a full-night polysomnography. The mean AHI for our subjects was 23.6 +/- 18.3 events per hour. CT imaging examinations were carried out in each patient. The mandible

and airway volume (between posterior nasal spine [PNS] and the tip of the epiglottis) were segmented based on Hounsfield units, automatically or semi-automatically, and their volume was calculated from the number of voxels. The tongue was carefully outlined, and the inside of the tongue was smeared on each of the axial, frontal, and sagittal Small molecule library research buy planes with a semi-automatic segmentation tool. The tongue/mandible (T/M) ratio was calculated

from the volume of the mandible and the tongue. In addition, we investigated simple correlations between our anatomical variables and BMI, age, Belnacasan and AHI.

Results. In this study, the mean tongue and mandible volume were 79.00 +/- 1.06 cm(3) and 87.80 +/- 1.21 cm(3), respectively. As BMI increases, tongue volume increases (P = .004) and airway volume decreases (P = .021). However, no significant correlation was found between severity of OSA (AHI) and other variables. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between airway volume and T/M ratio (P = .046).

Conclusion. As tongue volume increases with BMI, the posterior airway is affected, and thus is likely to be involved in the development of OSA; however, in this study there was no correlation between the severity of sleep apnea (AHI) and other variables in the study. (Oral see more Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 111: 239-243)”
“During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of

plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance.”
“In this paper, the hydrogen Balmer beta line shape from a micro-hollow gas discharge (MHGD) in argon with traces of hydrogen is used for simultaneous diagnostics of plasma and cathode sheath (CS) parameters.