F022 was certainly related to the increase in biomass In the fir

F022 was certainly related to the increase in biomass. In the first week after incubation, the growth rate rapidly increased, but enzyme production decreased. After 7 days of incubation, rapid growth was observed, whereas, the enzymes were produced only after a good amount of biomass was generated. About 63 % of pyrene underwent selleck chemicals biodegradation when incubated with this fungus in a liquid medium on a rotary shaker (120 rpm, 25 A degrees C)

for 30 days; during this period, pyrene was transformed to five stable metabolic products. These metabolites were extracted in ethyl acetate, isolated by column chromatography, and then identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 1-Hydroxypyrene was directly identified by GC-MS, while 4-phenanthroic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, phthalic acid, and protocatechuic acid were identified to be present in their derivatized forms (methylated forms and silylated forms). Protocatechuic acid was the end product of pyrene degradation by Armillaria sp. F022. Dynamic profiles of two key enzymes, namely laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase, were Selleckchem Tipifarnib revealed during the degradation process, and the results indicated the presence of a complicated mechanism in the regulation of pyrene-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, Armillaria sp. F022 is a white-rot fungus with potential for application in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons such as pyrene in the environment.”
“Objective: To review the reporting of key design features in studies of stroke rehabilitation therapies.


Design and Setting: We used purposive sampling to examine English-language, human-subject, comparative studies focusing on stroke rehabilitation therapy provided the effect of therapy was evaluated in at least one of the following six outcome domains: ambulation, cognition, quality of life, daily activities, dysphagia, or communication. We searched MEDLINE (R), CINAHL (R), PsycINFO (R), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (date range: January 2000 through late-January 2008) and extracted data from included studies using standardized forms. We depicted the extracted data in tables and Selleck Quizartinib summarized the findings qualitatively in the text.

Results: We retrieved 1,674 citations in the literature search and extracted data from 99 studies. Authors’ reporting of key design features in stroke rehabilitation studies was lacking in four areas, that is, the background of persons delivering therapy, timing of therapy, subjects’ receipt of prior or concomitant treatment, and psychometric properties of outcome measurement instruments.

Conclusions: Except for four areas, reporting of key design features in studies of stroke rehabilitation therapies was quite comprehensive. Researchers should pay particular attention to reporting blinding, and they should rationalize the number of outcome measurement instruments used in their studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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