One of the more commonly used methods, which is capable of analys

One of the more commonly used methods, which is capable of analysis of a wide range of orthodontic movements or distribution of stress and strain within teeth and periodontium, is the finite element method (FEM). Aiming to achieve the FEM model as close as possible to in vivo conditions, it is necessary to account for accurate material properties. The aim of the present study is to compare particular studies and descriptions of material characteristics of the PDL. The analysis of available articles shows how imperfect modern descriptions of PDL material properties available today are, which in the precise method could

allow the analysis of the occurrences within the Epigenetic inhibitor in vivo processes in a non-destructive manner. The complicated anatomy and physiology of PDL, which incur significant parameter changes with age and disease

susceptibility, make the accurate description of this material so difficult. The available study results show that those characteristics should be precise and complicated, which undoubtedly impedes the calculation processes but generates reliable results.”
“The current systematic review was aimed to assess the effectiveness of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. All available studies reporting on zygote morphology and clinical and/or biological outcomes were analyzed. Roscovitine Forty studies were included in the final analysis. Fourteen different zygote scoring systems were employed. Zygote morphology correlated significantly with embryo quality and cleavage, blastocyst stage, embryonic chromosome status, in a high proportion of the

studies which assessed the specific outcome [15/25 (60%), 15/20 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%), 6/6 (100%), respectively]. On the other hand, only a reduced proportion of papers showed a statistically significant relationship between implantation, pregnancy and delivery/live-birth rates and zygote morphology score [12/23 (52.2%), 12/25 (48%), 1/4 (25%), respectively]. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the lack of conclusive data on the clinical efficacy of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles, even if biological results showing a good relationship with embryo viability Selleck FG 4592 suggest a role in cycles in which the transfer/freezing is performed at day 1.”
“Objective: To review reported cases of acute twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies to help define variants of disease and determine associated factors. Methods: PubMed literature review using the search terms, “”acute”" and “”twin transfusion.”" Articles were reviewed for clinical factors. Reference lists were carefully assessed for any additional articles. In order to rule out sudden progression of chronic TTTS as the cause, gestational age >= 31 weeks was chosen. Cases were classified into subsets of acute TTTS. Results: There were 150 publications from 1942-2010.

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