Juveniles in Experiment 1 arrived at postnatal day 13 (P13) and w

Juveniles in Experiment 1 arrived at postnatal day 13 (P13) and were housed with their littermates and biological mother until weaning at P18. Adults in Experiment 1 arrived at ages ranging from P56 to 62, juveniles in Experiment 2 at P20, and adults in Experiment 2 at P54. Weanlings and sexually naïve adult males were singly housed in clear polycarbonate cages (30.5 × 10.2 × 20.3 cm) as is typical for this solitary species. Sixty adult female hamsters,

approximately 12 months old, were housed under similar conditions in separate vivaria and used as the source of VS. Female hamsters were http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html ovariectomized several weeks before hormone administration and collection of VS. They were injected subcutaneously with 10 μg estradiol

benzoate and 500 μg progesterone in sesame oil, 52 and 4 h, respectively, prior to collection of VS by gentle vaginal palpation. All experiments were conducted under <4 lux red light 1–5 h into the dark phase. A total of 110 hamsters were treated in accordance with the National Institute of Health Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and protocols were approved by the Michigan State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Place preference conditioning occurred as described previously (Bell et al., 2010) in an apparatus with one middle compartment and two outer compartments distinct in their visual, tactile and olfactory cues (Med Associates, St. Albans, VT, USA). To acclimate subjects to handling and novel chambers, male hamsters were placed in glass aquaria in the behavioral testing room for 10 min every learn more day, for 3 days prior to the start of the CPP regimen. A 17-min pretest (2 min in the middle compartment followed by 15 min access to Thiamine-diphosphate kinase all compartments) was used to determine each hamster’s initial compartment preference and to create groups with similar initial preferences, when possible. The outer compartment in which the hamster spent more time was defined as the initially preferred compartment. Hamsters that did not enter each compartment at least five times were

excluded from further training. Following the pretest, the hamsters received a series of 30-min conditioning sessions in the side compartments, one session per day on consecutive days, alternating no-stimulus or stimulus-paired sessions. During the no-stimulus conditioning sessions, hamsters in both the experimental and the control groups were placed in their initially preferred compartments, where they remained alone. During stimulus-paired conditioning sessions, hamsters in the experimental group were placed in the initially non-preferred compartments with the stimulus. The hamsters in the control groups were also placed in their initially non-preferred compartments but were not given the stimulus. This group served to quantify any change in preference or difference score across tests that were not due to conditioning.

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