to Ajap-1, Leda-1 localized to the basolateral co


to Ajap-1, Leda-1 localized to the basolateral compartment of the membrane as demonstrated by its location below ZO-1, a cytoplasmic protein that targets tight junctions separating the apical and basolateral compartments in polarized cells (Fig. 7A,C). Furthermore, Leda-1 specifically targeted adherens junctions in MDCK cells, as shown by colocalization with E-cadherin (Fig. 7B,D). These data suggest a role for Leda-1 in cell polarity and adhesion. As LSECs are a prime example of organ-specific Hydroxychloroquine molecular weight EC, this study sought to comprehensively analyze the molecular program underlying microenvironmentally controlled differentiation of LSEC in the liver. Multimodal microvascular gene expression profiling of freshly isolated LSEC versus LMEC and versus LSEC after short-term culture identified an LSEC-specific gene signature of 48 genes that is maintained by the hepatic microenvironment. Vice versa, induction of

a specific set of genes was also demonstrated in cultured LSEC, indicating that LSEC in culture rather undergo a process of transdifferentiation than of mere deterioration. Up-regulation of Esm1 and Cxcr4 in cultured LSEC, genes known to be expressed in lung and tumor EC (TEC),17, 18 in combination with acquisition of cobblestone morphology and reduction in endocytic capacity suggests that LSEC transdifferentiate in vitro toward a continuous MLN2238 EC phenotype. Interestingly,

these changes in culture are mirrored in vivo during sinusoidal capillarization in liver cirrhosis and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that related mechanisms could mediate LSEC transdifferentiation 上海皓元 in vivo and in vitro. This notion is further supported by overexpression of Ehd3 in LSEC, a member of the Ehd family of intracellular transport regulators.19 Colocalization of Ehd3 with Stabilin-1, but not Stabilin-2, implies a role for Ehd3 in trafficking of Stabilin-1-positive endosomes in LSEC. In addition, a strong decline in Ehd3 expression was found upon cultivation of LSEC. Interestingly, TEC isolated from rat HCC also showed strong down-regulation of Ehd3 protein as compared to normal LSEC,20 again indicating that the mechanisms that govern LSEC transdifferentiation in culture may also be responsible for pathogenic sinusoidal capillarization as in HCC. As the functional and molecular repertoire of LSEC differs in vivo and in vitro, current LSEC culture models do not allow to adequately study LSEC biology in culture. Experiments to improve LSEC culture,9, 10 however, were evaluated by a very limited set of LSEC markers, i.e., fenestrations and SE antigen/CD32b expression. Our study strongly broadens the knowledge of LSEC-specific genes and thereby allows for a much more sophisticated analysis as well as for further improvement of LSEC culture models.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>