Open questions, such as dose, (minimum) duration of treatment and

Open questions, such as dose, (minimum) duration of treatment and the individual risk/benefit ratio are subjects of prospective randomized trials which are underway. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize reservoir-based transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for buspirone (BUSP), a low bioavailable

drug. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the TTS. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, d-limonene and propylene glycol were varied as independent variables; cumulative amount AZD9291 cell line permeated across rat abdominal skin in 24 h, flux and lag time were selected as dependent variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The statistical validity of polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected by feasibility and grid search. Validation of the optimization study with seven confirmatory runs indicated high selleck degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. BUSP-OPT (optimized formulation) showed a flux 104.6 A mu g cm(-2) h(-1), which

could meet target flux. The bioavailability studies in rabbits showed that about 2.65 times improvement (p < 0.05) in bioavailability, after transdermal administration of BUSP-OPT compared to oral solution. The ex vivo-in vivo correlation was found to have biphasic pattern and followed type A correlation. Reservoir-based TTS for BUSP was developed and optimized using Box-Behnken statistical design and could provide an effective treatment in the management of anxiety.”
“Background: The routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients

with neutropenia and hematological KU 57788 malignancies is controversial. This prophylaxis has been reported to have a positive impact in reducing infection-related mortality, but the consequent development of antibiotic resistance has become a concern. This study assessed the effect of discontinuing quinolone prophylaxis on the etiology and the resistance pattern of blood culture isolates and on the prognosis among febrile neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy.

Methods: The results of blood cultures obtained from febrile neutropenic patients between January 2003 and June 2009 were analyzed; these results were available through a computer database set up in 2003.

Results: Patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis between 2003 and 2005 showed a lower incidence of Gram-negative bacteria than patients not receiving prophylaxis between 2006 and 2009 (13.5%, n = 9 vs. 48.1%, n = 75). Interestingly, after discontinuing prophylaxis, approximately 70% of the Gram-negative bacteria isolated were quinolone-resistant, and some were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The frequencies of quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolated were similar between the period of quinolone prophylaxis and the period with no prophylaxis (61.1% vs. 64.3%).

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