“Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) is the

“Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causal agent of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle. Genotyping of

MAP is useful to gain a better understanding of the origin of infection, to evaluate regional control programs, to improve diagnostics, and to develop vaccines. In this study 91 MAP isolates mainly from symptomatic dairy cattle in Rhineland-Palatinate (RP, Germany), its neighbor federal states, and Luxembourg were genotyped using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and Multilocus Short Sequence Repeats (MLSSR). MIRU-VNTR and MLSSR produced 11 and 6 different genotypes among the 91 isolates, Selleckchem BAY 80-6946 respectively. The combined analysis of both methods produced 25 genotypes with an index of discrimination (D) of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95).

The results revealed the genetic diversity of MAP and the dominance of two MAP genotypes commonly found in Europe, showed the usefulness of MAP genotyping in studies at a regional scale, and provided useful information for control initiatives in RP. (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“P>The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway plays a central role in plant defense responses against insects. Some phloem-feeding insects also induce the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, thereby suppressing the plant’s JA response. These phenomena have been signaling pathway well studied in dicotyledonous plants, but little Dactolisib is known about them in monocotyledons. We cloned a chloroplast-localized type 2 13-lipoxygenase gene of rice, OsHI-LOX, whose transcripts were up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and the rice brown planthopper (BPH) Niaparvata lugens, as well as by mechanical wounding and treatment with JA. Antisense expression of OsHI-LOX (as-lox) reduced SSB- or BPH-induced JA and trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI) levels, improved the larval performance

of SBB as well as that of the rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and increased the damage caused by SSB and LF larvae. In contrast, BPH, a phloem-feeding herbivore, showed a preference for settling and ovipositing on WT plants, on which they consumed more and survived better than on as-lox plants. The enhanced resistance of as-lox plants to BPH infestation correlated with higher levels of BPH-induced H(2)O(2) and SA, as well as with increased hypersensitive response-like cell death. These results imply that OsHI-LOX is involved in herbivore-induced JA biosynthesis, and plays contrasting roles in controlling rice resistance to chewing and phloem-feeding herbivores.

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