Median follow up was 4 years Eighteen basic parameters were meas

Median follow up was 4 years. Eighteen basic parameters were measured each in the hind-, mid-, and forefoot. For dimension reduction, we represented a pre-selected set of 9 parameters by two indices (load, rollover). We used ordinal logistic and multiple linear regression to address the questions.\n\nFindings: The midfoot index of load was the most important pedobarographic predictor (interquartile range odds ratio 100; 95% confidence interval 13, 771) for belonging to the healthy volunteers rather than Bafilomycin A1 molecular weight the ankle or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis

groups. Similarly, it was an independent predictor for the AOFAS score (interquartile range effect 5 points; 95% confidence interval 1, 9). Healthy volunteers had a deeper midfoot depression in the force/pressure time graphs compared to patients after arthrodesis.\n\nInterpretation: When evaluating foot function after ankle or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis, the interpretation of a large number of pedobarographic parameters can be reduced to the interpretation of the midfoot index of load and the evaluation of the force/pressure time graphs. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundCommercially available implantable defibrillators utilize a high-tilt waveform. Studies in atrial fibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown improved defibrillation efficacy using low-tilt (LT) waveforms.

We investigated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a LT waveform in the transvenous defibrillation of VF and hypothesized that it would be more efficacious than standard buy Nepicastat tilted biphasic (STB) waveforms. Methods and ResultsThe investigation was performed in four phases in a porcine model: an efficacy study of LT monophasic waveforms (n= 9), an efficacy study of LT biphasic waveforms (n= 9), a comparison study between the most successful LT waveforms selleck chemical and clinically available STB waveforms (n= 15), and a safety study (n= 9). A total of 1,056 shocks were delivered (phase 1: 288, phase 2:

288, phase 3: 480). The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform was significantly more likely to successfully defibrillate than the LT monophasic and STB waveforms with an odds ratio of 122.3 (95% confidence interval: 32.5, 460.2, P smaller than 0.001). The calculated defibrillation threshold (E50) for the LT 8/4-ms waveform was 12.7 J compared to 43.5 J and 45.5 J for STB waveforms 6/6 ms and 8/4 ms, respectively, and 47.7 J for LT 12-ms waveform. The LT 8/4-ms waveform had no lasting detrimental effect on cardiac function, and any transient hemodynamical or biochemical changes observed were comparable to those observed with STB waveforms. ConclusionLT waveforms are effective and appear safe in transvenous defibrillation in a porcine model of VF. The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform is more efficacious than conventional waveforms.

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