Hypertension 1999, 33:586–590.PubMedCrossRef 29. Payne JR, James LE, Eleftheriou KI, Hawe E, Mann J, Stronge A, Banham K, World M, Humphries SE, Pennell DJ, Montgomery HE: The association of left ventricular mass with blood pressure, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; data from the LARGE Heart study. Int Wortmannin cost J Cardiol 2007, 120:52–58.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests TJH and JTC are the principle or co-investigators of currently-funded research or service contracts at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with Rock
Creek Pharmaceuticals, Abbott Nutrition, General Nutrition Center, and Stepan Lipid Nutrition. NDMJ, DAT, KCC, HCB, and RWL Jr. declare that they have no competing Selleckchem LY333531 interests. Authors’ contributions NDMJ was the primary manuscript writer, and carried out data acquisition, data analysis
and data interpretation. DAT, KCC, HCB, and RWL Jr. were significant contributors to data acquisition and were important manuscript reviewers/revisers. GOJ, RJS, and TJH were significant manuscript reviewers/revisers and were substantial contributors to conception and design of this study. JTC was the primary manuscript reviewer/reviser, a substantial contributor to concept and design, and contributed to data analysis and interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Applying the science of nutrient timing, this study examined the differential effects of two beverages—a ready-to-drink 1:4 carbohydrate to protein beverage (VPX) and an isocaloric carbohydrate powdered beverage (iCHO)—on exercise Fossariinae performance indices and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) following high-intensity resistance training (HIRT). Post-exercise, it appears there is a plastic window
of opportunity to efficiently replenish glycogen and support the processes of repair and stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Refueling after exercise, ideally within 30 minutes and no more than two hours, has been shown to positively influence the repletion of glycogen stores and augment protein synthesis . Although the nutrient timing theory has been challenged and recent evidence argues that multiple factors can influence the rationale of the “window of opportunity” , the strategy for immediate post-exercise re-feeding is applicable to activities that require multiple bouts and/or glycogen-depleting endurance events . Carbohydrate and protein drinks are leading sources for post-exercise refueling due to their absorptive properties, but there is disagreement as to which of the two Selleckchem APR-246 macronutrients are most effective post-workout, specifically as it relates to nutrient timing and supporting recovery.