Efforts to determine the effect of the infection with H pylori r

Efforts to determine the effect of the infection with H. pylori rocF- strains in the cellular infiltration of the gastric mucosa are currently underway. To the selleck chemical best of our knowledge, there is only one published work trying to measure the levels of H. pylori arginase in gastric biopsies of patients with gastritis and its correlation with disease [34]. That work showed that there is a lot of variability on the levels of H. pylori arginase in biopsies

but the authors were not able to establish a correlation with the degree of gastritis. The reason for the increased number of genes modulated by the rocF- H. pylori, when compared to the WT and the rocF + bacteria, is not known; however, our results, rather than suggesting the existence of H. pylori arginase mutants in human gastric lesions, highlights the importance that this enzyme may have in the interaction of the bacteria find more with cells in the human gastric mucosa, and through them, with the immune system. Taken together our results suggest that H. pylori arginase, by modulating the production of IL-8 may play a significant role in the survival of H. pylori in the gastric environment. By preventing an over-zealous immune response, H. pylori can achieve its www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html chronicity through the production of arginase and probably other bacterial factors that contribute to the overall global success of this important and highly-adapted

gastric human pathogen. Conclusion Our results highlight the importance of H. pylori arginase in the modulation of inflammatory responses. Since IL-8 is pivotal for the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the gastric mucosa, H. pylori arginase may be involved in reducing the tissue damage associated with the evolution of the gastric lesions through the modulation of multiple pathways on the gastric epithelial cells. Methods Bacterial growth conditions H. pylori 26695 strains (wild type [WT], rocF- mutant, and the rocF- mutant chromosomally-complemented with wild type 26695 rocF- (rocF-26695-MLB0004, hereafter referred to as rocF+) were described previously [13]. All strains were passaged every 2–3 days on Campylobacter blood Quisqualic acid agar (CBA) plates at 37°C with 85% N2,

5% O2, and 10% CO2. Prior to coculture experiments, H. pylori cells were grown in Ham’s F-12 with heat-inactivated 1% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) [35]. H. pylori growth was monitored by ATP level using Cell Titer-Glo® cell viability assay kit (Promega, NY, USA), as validated previously [36] and by plating for colony forming units. Comparable number of viable bacteria was assured in each experiment. Tissue culture and co-culture AGS gastric epithelial cells (ATCC CRL-1739, Rockville, MD) were maintained in F-12 with heat-inactivated 10% FBS at 37°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2. For the experiments, 1 x 106 AGS cells were seeded into 6-well plates containing 2 ml fresh F-12 supplemented with 3% heat-inactivated FBS and cultured for 8 hours.

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