Consequently, based on PAR(II), also a wavelength- and sample-dependent ETR(II) can be defined $$ \textETR(\textII) = \textPAR(\textII) \cdot \frac\textY(\textII)\textY(\textII)_\max , $$ (4)where PAR(II) is the rate of quantum absorption selleck screening library at PS II, Y(II) the effective PS II quantum yield derived from the fluorescence ratio parameter (\( F^\prime_\textm \) − F)/\( F^\prime_\textm \), Y(II)max the PS II quantum yield in the quasi-dark reference state under which Sigma(II)λ was determined and ETR(II) the rate of electron transport expressed in units of electrons/(PS II s). At very low light intensity, Y(II) approaches
Y(II)max, so that Y(II)/Y(II)max = 1 and ETR(II) = PAR(II). This means that in this state there is no loss of PS II efficiency
with respect to the reference quasi-dark state (all centers open, non-energized, weak FR background illumination) under which Sigma(II)λ was measured. Y(II)max corresponds to the PS II quantum yield of a sample in the same state as given for measurement of k(II), which equals F v/F m. In measurements with algae and cyanobacteria, which display a relatively high level of PQ-reduction in the dark, it is advisable to measure F v/F m in the presence of FR background light, which oxidizes the PQ-pool and induces the high PS II-efficiency state 1. FR background light is KPT-330 price also routinely used for assessment of k(II) and Sigma(II)λ via the O–I 1 rise kinetics. When
compared with the common definition of rel.ETR in Eq. 2, it is apparent that the ETR-factor is contained in PAR(II) and that ETR(II) has the dimension of a turnover rate per N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase PS II, whereas rel.ETR commonly has been treated as an electron flux density (or fluence rate), i.e., a rate per area, which without information on PS II per area must be considered hypothetical. In contrast, ETR(II) realistically describes the mean absolute rate of charge-separation per PS II in all PS II contained in the 1-mL illuminated sample. When the appropriate wavelength- and sample-dependent Sigma(II)λ value is known, the user software of the multi-color-PAM supports the transformation of PAR into PAR(II). A practical example of transformation of a PAR-scale into a PAR(II) scale is given in Fig. 8, which is derived from the buy Idasanutlin original rel.ETR LC data of Fig. 4 using the information on the values of Sigma(II)λ measured with the same dilute Chlorella suspension briefly before the LC recording. PAR values were transformed into PAR(II) using Eq. 3 and ETR(II) was calculated according to Eq. 4. Fig. 8 ETR(II) LC of a dilute suspension of Chlorella (300 μg Chl/L) using 440- and 625-nm light derived from the original LC of rel.ETR depicted in Fig.