All extension reactions were performed at least twice with indepe

All extension reactions were performed at least twice with independent RNA preparations and the reproducible peaks were selected. Animal cell cultures and invasion assay HeLa cell lines were obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA). Cells were grown to a monolayer at 37°C, 5% CO2 in DMEM with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. Cells were then infected at an MOI of 100 in 24-well plates. Bacteria were spun onto the HeLa cells and incubated at 4°C

for 30 min, then at 37°C for 1 hour. Extracellular bacteria were killed Selleck P505-15 with 50 μg/ml gentamicin for 30 min. HeLa cells were then lysed with 0.1% Triton X-100 and plated for CFU determination. Mouse studies Food and water were withdrawn 4 h before inoculation of female BALB/c mice (weighing 16 to 18 g). Mice (10 for each strain) were inoculated with 106 bacteria by oral gavage using a 22-gauge feeding needle. Dilutions of the stationary-phase cultures were plated to determine the number of bacteria present in the inoculum. For virulence assays, time of death was recorded as days post-infection. Competition infection experiments were conducted as described above, except that the mutant strain was co-infected with a chloramphenicol marked wild

type strain (selleckchem JSG224, phoN2 ZXX::6251dTn10-Cam). After plating bacteria on appropriate media from organs four days post-infection, the competitive index was calculated as the CFU mutantplate count from organ/wild typeplate count from organ divided by find more mutantinoculum/wild typeinoculum. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ohio State

University Institutional Animal Care Megestrol Acetate and Use Committee. Motility assays 0.3% agar DMEM plates were made containing, where indicated, 10 or 20 μM autoinducer-2 (AI-2 was a gift from Dr. Dehua Pei, Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University), 10 or 50 μM epinephrine, or equivalent amounts of acidified water as a control for epinephrine plates (epinephrine was solubilized in acidified water). Overnight cultures were grown in LB, 37°C with shaking, adjusted to an OD of 0.1 at 600 nm and incubated for 2 hours at 37°C with shaking. Plates were stab-inoculated and incubated at 37°C for 14 hours. The diameter of the motility circles were measured at various times and compared. Results Transcriptome of the PreA/PreB two-component system In previous experiments, we realized that the preAB TCS was not fully activated during growth in LB, as indicated by the absence of regulatory effects on the two known target genes (yibD, pmrCAB) when comparing a nonpolar mutation in the preA response regulator to the wild type strain [3]. This was confirmed in this study by microarray analysis co-hybridizing preA and wild type cDNA to a multistrain slide microarray of Salmonella enterica (data not shown).

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