The loss of regional interneuronal homeostasis must not necessarily affect huge brain areas; it might be only limited to certain small and circumscripted regions in the brain. As a consequence, clinicians should be able to choose the pharmacologically appropriate medication for the affected brain region.71 Concluding remarks Stem-cell maintenance and generation take place in a distinct microenvironment where appropriate external signals can best exert their regulatory function
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on these cells. Signals provided by neural growth factors are responsible for neural stem-cell growth. Since components of regular stem-cell maintenance like BDNF are also implicated in mechanistic models characteristic of mood disorders, they thus offer new targets for pharmacologic intervention in neuropsychiatrie disease. More thorough knowledge about this complex connection mayhelp us render antidepressant treatment more efficient and reduce the undesirable side effects that impair patient compliance. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical So far there is no stem-cell-based approach really on the horizon for treating depression or any other psychosis. Selected abbreviations and acronyms 5-HT serotonin BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor CREB cAMP response element binding protein ES cells embryonic stem cells SCBI stem cell-based interventions
Pharmacological developments in the 20th
century have produced a wide range of drugs that have greatly improved the treatment of many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical serious diseases. In psychopharmacology, the discoveries of antipsychotic, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tranquillizing, or antidepressant agents, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), were milestones in the treatment of mental illness. However, compared with the general pharmacological progress, the psychopharmacological development, whilst noteworthy, has been somewhat less spectacular. Despite
heavy investments Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in mental health-related research,1 there have been few important discoveries since the 1950s, when a number of psychopharmacological agents were discovered that are still in use. For example, clozapine was synthesized over 50 years ago but continues to be described as the “most effective antipsychotic drug” for the treatment of schizophrenia,2 and is recommended in the UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2009 update to its schizophrenia guidance.3 Traditionally, Carnitine dehydrogenase the drugs developed have been “one size fits all,” ie, standardized drugs targeting symptoms or syndromes that can be shared by various diseases, rather than being disease-specific, let alone patient-specific. Even though health care is by definition personalized in the sense that the patient’s needs broadly determine the nature of recommended treatment, eg, type and dosage of medication, traditional medication leaves little room for individual variations in 5-HT receptor agonist and antagonist review responses to treatment, notably through the randomized double -blind procedure used in clinical trials that is incompatible with individualized assessment.