) Hypocreanum On basidiomes of Exidia spp. Europe (Eastern Austria, Ukraine), North America (USA), Japan Hypocrea citrina (Trichoderma lacteum) Hypocreanum Spreading from stumps or tree bases on soil and debris such as small twigs, bark, leaves, dead plants; incorporating also living plants;
more rarely on bark of logs on the ground. Most typically in mixed coniferous forest widespread and locally common, mostly found from the end of August to the beginning of October. Europe (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) and North America (USA) Hypocrea voglmayrii (Trichoderma voglmayrii) Lone lineage On dead, mostly corticated branches and small trunks of Alnus alnobetula (=
A. viridis) and A. incana standing or RAAS inhibitor lying on the ground Austria (at elevations of 1,000–1,400 m in the upper montane vegetation zone of the Central Alps) Hypocrea gelatinosa (Trichoderma gelatinosum) Lone lineage On medium- to buy MK5108 well-decayed wood, also on bark and overgrowing various fungi Europe (Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Slovenia, Ukraine, United Kingdom) Hypocrea parmastoi (Trichoderma sp. [sect. Hypocreanum]) Lone lineage On medium- to well-decayed wood OSI-027 cost and bark of deciduous trees Europe (Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany); uncommon Data were compiled from Chaverri and Samuels (2003), Overton et al. (2006a, b), and Jaklitsch (2009, 2011) Materials and methods Specimens of Hypocrea teleomorphs were collected from four different locations in Austria (Table 3). Pure agar cultures were obtained by single-ascospore isolations from the respective, freshly collected specimens as previously described by Jaklitsch Sitaxentan (2009): Table 3 Habitat
and geographic origin of Hypocrea isolates included in this study aStroma immature, isolation of single germinable ascospores impossible bThe specimens of H. sulphurea 1 and 2 were collected from two different trees found in the same area Parts of stromata were crushed in sterile distilled water. The resulting suspension was transferred to cornmeal agar plates (Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) supplemented with 2 % (w/v) D(+)-glucose-monohydrate (CMD), and 1 % (v/v) of an aqueous solution of 0.2 % (w/v) streptomycin sulfate (Sigma) and 0.2 % (w/v) neomycin sulfate (Sigma). Plates were incubated overnight at 25 °C. In order to exclude possible contamination by spores of other fungal species, few germinated ascospores from within an ascus were transferred to fresh plates of CMD using a thin platinum wire. The plates were sealed with Parafilm (Pechiney, Chicago, Illinois) and incubated at 25 °C.