However, our in vitro studies also showed that cytokine

However, our in vitro studies also showed that cytokine MAPK inhibitor production and macrophage proliferation occurred in a CCR5-independent manner [13, 14]. Therefore, elucidation of TgCyp18 functions in regard to T. gondii dissemination throughout a host will be important

for understanding transport mechanisms in host cells and parasites. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the role of TgCyp18 in cellular recruitment and parasite dissemination in a CCR5-independent manner through the use of recombinant parasites that had been transfected with TgCyp18. Methods Ethics statement This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Obihiro University of Agriculture and GS-1101 research buy Veterinary Medicine.

The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (Permit number 24–15, 25–59). All surgery was performed under isoflurane anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize animal suffering. Parasite and cell cultures The RH strain of T. gondii and its recombinant derivatives were maintained in Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cells cultured in Eagle’s minimum essential medium (EMEM; Sigma, St Louis, MO) supplemented with 8% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS, Nichirei Biosciences, Tokyo, Japan). For tachyzoite purification, parasites and host-cell debris were washed in cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and the final pellet was resuspended in cold PBS, then passed through a 27-gauge needle RG7112 concentration and a 5.0-μm-pore filter (Millipore, Bedford, MA). Animals Female

C57BL/6 J mice were obtained from CLEA Japan (Tokyo, Japan). CCR5 knockout mice (CCR5−/−, B6.129P2-Ccr5 tm1Kuz /J, Stock No. 005427) were purchased from the Jackson laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Animals were housed under specific pathogen-free conditions in the animal facility at the National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases (Obihiro University of Agriculture Cetuximab and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan). Animals used in this study were treated and used according to the Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Research Animals published by the Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine. Transfer vector construction cDNA synthesized from RNA isolated with TRI reagent (Sigma) using a SuperScript™ First-strand Synthesis System for RT-PCR (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) was used as a template to amplify the coding region of the full-length TgCyp18 gene (GenBank accession number U04633.1). The primers used to amplify the TgCyp18 gene contained the NcoI recognition sequence (boldface) in the forward primer (5′-AGC CAT GGA TGA AGC TCG TGC TGT TTT TC-3′) and a NheI site (boldface) in the reverse primer (5′-GTG CTA GCC TCC AAC AAA CCA ATG TCC GT-3′). Amplicons were digested with NcoI and NheI and then ligated into pCR4-TOPO (Invitrogen) to yield pCR4-TOPO-TgCyp18.

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