Due to the interaction between
Belnacasan cell line the surface of c-ZnO NWs and moisture solution, the radial concentration of Zn2+ ion would be changed because Zn2+ ions gradually dissolve and diffuse from the original c-ZnO NWs surface into the moisture solution. When the concentration of Zn2+ ion in moisture solution meets the saturation condition, the Zn2+ ions start to segregate out from the moisture solution; the a-ZnO NBs cause to grow from the main body of the original c-ZnO NWs, which can be seen in Figure 2b. If the dimension of the original c-ZnO NWs is sufficient, the dissolving and diffusing effects can be maintained for a long period; the a-ZnO NBs will keep growing and forming ultra-long a-ZnO NBs. Normally, a-ZnO NBs would be spontaneously grown from specific size of c-ZnO NWs, such as around hundreds of nanometers. In high humidity, however, Ipatasertib it is difficult for a-ZnO NBs to segregate from
the moisture solution, which means that the Zn2+ ion concentration in moisture solution is not high enough to meet the condition of saturation forming a-ZnO NBs. That is why the ultra-long a-ZnO NBs cannot be seen in high humidity (90% ± 2.5%). Figure 2 The spontaneous reaction mechanism of a-ZnO NBs is illustrated. (a) A uniform c-ZnO NWs (dark green rod) placed in the moisture environment surrounded by H2O molecules (light blue bubbles). The c-ZnO NW has uniform ZnO concentration which can be seen from the inset (ZnO concentration versus radius). (b) After H2O molecules learn more absorbed at the surface of c-ZnO NWs, the Zn2+ ions would be dissolved from the surface of c-ZnO NWs and became aqueous solution diffused away from the c-ZnO NWs. When the Zn2+ ions and the ZnO NBs start to segregate out from the moisture solution and cause to grow from the main body of the original ZnO NWs, respectively (inset). (c, d) The surface potential Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase was measured before and after moisture treatment. (1) (2) (3) The main reactions can be understood by the previous equations [27–29]; there are several reactive intermediates like Zn(OH)4 2−, Zn(OH)2, or Zn(OH)3 −, which depend
on the specific parameters such as the concentration of Zn2+ ion, the amount of H2O molecules, and the pH value. Further investigation, the spontaneous growth mechanism of a-ZnO NBs can be studied through the c-ZnO NWs surface potential measurement by using Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) tapping mode. The surface potential of c-ZnO NWs can be changed due to the humidity absorption. Before humidity treatment, the surface morphology and potential were smooth and almost constant (around 10 to 25 mV variation) by SEM and KPFM analysis, respectively (Figure 2c). After humidity treatment, the surface morphology and potential were rough and varied (around 198.26 mV variation), respectively (Figure 2d). This surface potential variation might induce the a-ZnO NBs spontaneous growth.