“SETTING: Contact tracing using pediatric index cases has not been adequately investigated
in high tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence settings.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the yield of contact tracing in household contacts of pediatric TB index cases in Botswana.
DESIGN: Index cases included all pediatric (age <= 13 years) TB admissions from January 2009 to December 2011 to Botswana’s largest referral hospital. A contact tracing team identified cases, conducted home visits, symptom-screened contacts and referred those with >= 1 TB symptoms. The primary outcome was newly diagnosed TB in a contact.
RESULTS: From 163 pediatric index cases, 548 contacts were screened (median 3 contacts/case, interquartile range [IQR] 2-4). Of these, 49 (9%) were referred for positive symptoms on screening and 27/49 (55%) see more were evaluated for active TB. Twelve new TB cases were diagnosed (12/548, 2.2%); the median age was 31 years (IQR 23-38); 11 (92%) were smear-positive. Ten (83%) had known HIV status: 7 (70%) were HIV-positive. To find one new TB case, the number needed to contact trace (index cases/new cases) was 13.6, and the number needed to screen (contacts/new cases) was 46.
CONCLUSION: This yield of contact tracing using selleck kinase inhibitor pediatric index cases is similar to the traditional adult index case approach. Improving
the proportion of symptomatic contacts evaluated may increase yield.”
“Ecklonia cava (EC) was irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 3, 7, and 20 kGy. The extraction yields, total polyphenol content (TPC), DPPH CRT0066101 price radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial activity, and color of the EC extracts were assessed. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase in the extraction yields of ethanol and water. TPC was found to be significantly increased when EC powder was subjected to irradiation, followed by ethanol and water extraction. However, DPPH radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities were stable under all irradiation conditions. In the heat and pH stability tests, the DPPH radical scavenging
activities of EC ethanol extracts were not influenced by irradiation. Irradiation caused an increase in the lightness and redness of EC extracts and decreased the yellowness. In conclusion, gamma-irradiation increased the extraction yield and TPC and brightened the color, while maintaining the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.”
“A single precursor technique was used to synthesize gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with diameters from 5 to 7 nm. The blocking temperature of the nanoparticles essentially increases with Fe precursor concentration. Transmission Mossbauer spectroscopy of the different gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticle systems reveal that the local Fe environments in the nanoparticle vary considerably with Fe precursor concentration.